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I don't know what I want anymore, but I know what I don't want.

2020.09.23 18:27 ImpalaLed I don't know what I want anymore, but I know what I don't want.

I'll admit that I have core issues of my own to deal with before I can expect to make any progress in meeting someone. I need to get over my crippling self-doubt and social anxiety. I can't outright cure my depression once and for all, but I can't let it control me. It's completely okay that I may not have a lot of dating experience or that I may feel nervous because I am not the world's greatest lover. If everything I am hearing from others is true, whatever supposed shortcomings I may feel I have won't matter if I am able to find someone who has the same amount of mutual love and respect for me. Part of what makes a relationship meaningful is helping one another overcome obstacles and growing together. Yeah, I may be a cynical misanthropic asshole, but I do still believe some of this positivity crap. Or at least I am hoping it is all true for my sake.
That being said, I guess I just have to own the fact that I am and have always been an "indoor kid" with geeky tendencies. Just because I never cared for sports or things like camping, hiking, fishing, etc. that doesn't mean that there aren't plenty of other adults my age who are the same way. I can't believe I am the only 40-something in the whole world who is still in an extended adolescence. There has to be plenty of folks who still enjoy video games and comic books. The internet is full of people who are incredibly passionate about movies and music and their age is irrelevant. I shouldn't feel like I am unworthy of love, just because I didn't go to college or that I haven't traveled. It doesn't make me any less interesting or any less deserving of a chance to be happy.
Unfortunately, I do find myself in a situation where it seems like I am unable to find any like-minded people. I am more Liberal than most of my family and coworkers and I am unapologetically Atheist. It's not to say I cannot be friends with Conservatives or religious people, but it could mean that I may not be seen as a good match with someone with strongly held opposing beliefs. I do know I have no interest in associating with extreme far-Right Conservative Christian Evangelicals and/or those who see absolutely nothing wrong with Trump. Those are things I can't budge on and given my lack of interest in faith or religion, I probably would just end up offending most people of faith, if they got to know me better.
I have had plenty of people tell me I am wrong for having this stance, but I don't agree. You really expect me to believe that a woman who believes in god and the concept of a soul and an afterlife is really going to want to become intimately involved with someone who openly calls religion bullshit? I'd imagine that most religious people ultimately want to settle down with someone who has the same values and faith. Most people who take their religion seriously, kinda feel obligated to get married, have kids, and raise their families in the church. I really don't know of many people who say, "Yeah, I believe in god, but it doesn't matter." How the fuck does that work? You may as well not believe if it doesn't matter to you. I don't know, maybe there are plenty of happy relationships between deeply Conservative bible-thumpers and bleeding heart Liberal heathens. I'm sure that religion is never an issue of contention for those couples, ever. I mean, I am getting so many likes on OLD sites from women who have things like, "Jesus First" in the profiles. (NOT!)
As for the Trump stuff, bottom line, I think the man is a raging lunatic and a complete disaster. I see nothing redeemable in him and I honestly have no respect for the people who continuously defend him, no matter what. He's a disgrace and people who like him should be ashamed. I won't budge on it and I won't apologize. I have never been deeply inspired by any politician, not even Obama, but I at least respected him and didn't find myself die inside a little more every time I'd hear his voice.
So, yeah, I know what sort of things I feel are deal breakers for me or what could be seen as red flags by others. I'm not terribly obsessed with looks, but I do know what I find attractive. I value things like a really good sense of humor, the ability to hold a conversation, enough mutual interests so we can enjoy things together, and being open and honest with each other. Nothing too pretentious or egregious there. I'm sure it's the sort of things most people want in a potential match.
I've never been a casual dater and I tend to be more monogamous, but that doesn't mean that if I met someone who essentially was like, "Hey, I am not in any rush to settle down or move in together. I don't have any interest in having kids with you or meeting each other's family. I am fine with keeping it casual in the sense that I'll be expecting a ring at any point in the near future either. I'm happy to focus on each other, enjoy one another's company, and have fun doing things together. If things really get serious, I'm game. I can be emotionally available and open, but that doesn't mean that this is the end."
I don't know, if that is what counts as causal these days or if it really means just hooking up randomly. I am not looking for that. Although, there was a time I would have been more into it.
I do know I am not really sure if I want kids. The whole "picket fence American Dream" was never something I saw for myself. I am in a situation right now where I could, if I had the money and gumption, move away from where I am now. If I felt like it wouldn't be a disaster, I'd say I would move out to LA and try to get into filmmaking, editing, music production, etc. My two biggest passions are films and music and I would so fucking love a career in that field. I just have no experience or education and I have no fucking confidence in myself to make such a bold move. I wouldn't even know where to start. That being said, getting a house and two kids, going to soccer practice on weekends, and having family over for Sunday dinner isn't where I can see myself at any time soon. I don't know if it will ever be in my future, I don't think I want it to be.
If the world was fair and I could get whatever I wanted, I'd be dating a Suicide Girl (I have a few in particular in mind), I'd be directing music videos for incredible Indie bands, and contributing song suggestions to incredibly iconic film soundtracks. I'd be friends with stand-up comedians and living in a modest house, someplace warmer. Right now, I am working in a job I don't care for, surrounded by coworkers I can't relate to. I have a challenging relationship with most of my family and no friends at all. I live alone with a cat and spend my time off in front of the TV during the day and, not often, laying in the dark, listening to music while high. I don't care to go to church on Sundays and I am not looking to donate to some sort of "pro-life" organization. It'd be a miracle to get me out of the apartment in the first place, but if I were to hit the streets in support of a cause, it would be something like allying myself with the LGBTQIA+ community or something like civil rights and equality for all. I'd be attending meetings for secular organizations, like Center For Inquiry. I'd be going to concerts on Saturday night and sleeping in on Sundays.
I doubt that's the sort of man most women my age are looking for, even if I wasn't so unsure of myself and desperate. I honestly just don't feel like there is anything out there for me any more.
submitted by ImpalaLed to depression [link] [comments]

2020.09.23 15:43 Darkchurchhill I am 24 years old make $90,000, live in Boston, Massachusetts and work as a full stacks developer

*mental health, drugs, body image and food discussed\*
Background: Hi, I am 24 years old and make $90,000, live in the Boston area (Cambridge/Somerville). I work as a full stacks developer and have a BS in computer science. Currently, I live with two housemates in a cute townhome apartment in a nice walkable neighborhood with lots of parks, restaurants, and amenities. I originally moved here from LA on a whim late last September despite not knowing anyone or having a place to call home. I was living with my parents after university and working in a job environment I hated. I was really depressed and overspent on clothes, beauty products, and going out like crazy to cope. Moving to Boston allowed me to feel in control of my life, and as of today, it’s been officially a year, which is crazy. I decided to put one up today to celebrate. I’ve always wanted to do a money diary, but was ashamed to do so when I felt like a mess.
Section One: Assets and Debt
Section Two: Income
Section Three: Expenses
Wednesday 16th
7:00am: The sun wakes me. I was hoping to sleep in more since I redownloaded tinder last night and stayed up till like 3am swiping and contemplating if this was the wrong decision for my mental and physical health. One of my matches messaged me to come over. I haven’t gotten laid since before the pandemic lockdown started. The sexual frustration has been real. I entertain the thought, but don’t reply back.
11:30am: On a zoom meeting with my boss, she asks us if we would like to start coming back twice a week to meet in person in October. I feel unsure about this, as I am still sketched out by public transit, but everything is still up in the air.
12:30pm: I eat leftover fried rice for lunch I made. I say fried rice but it mostly consists of vegetables. I still feel hungry afterwards, but I guess if I was going to be dating again I should lose some more weight so I can feel hot on my virtual zoom calls or wherever people do nowadays.
4:00pm: The work day is over early today. I hit up the guy on tinder who wanted to hook up. We make arrangements for him to slide through later this evening. He offers to come over to my place instead because he had something to do in Cambridge first anyways, and offers to bring drinks. We exchanged instagrams. I’m a little sussed out because he looks like the type who is really into themselves (like really into archival fashion RickOwens/Celine/YSL and has tons of edgy selfies). Whatever it’s just sex. I tell him it’s fine and that I have both wine and weed, and he sends me a little devil emoji.
5:00pm: I take the time to clean my room and make myself look presentable before planting myself onto the couch. I actually have no idea when he’s going to come, but I don’t want to message him again because if he doesn’t come through I want the satisfaction of him thinking I couldn’t care less. It’s toxic, I know, but in my lifetime I’ve been treated so badly by people I’ve given my heart to that sometimes I feel like my pride is the only thing I have left. Anyways, I wait by listening to female dating empowerment podcasts, hoping that some of the hosts’ confidence would rub off onto me.
7:00pm: I open a bottle of wine in anticipation and pour myself a glass.
10:00pm: No word from him, I guess I got stood up. Wow, only one day in and I’m already getting the full tinder experience. No surprises here though. I'm an adult. I can handle disappointment. I’m just really drunk now and alone.
11:00pm: Moody vinyls are now being played. I’m on the phone with friends, and three-fourths of my bottle of wine is gone. I check instagram only to see that the little weasel has unfollowed me so naturally I unfollowed him. I open tinder to unmatch him, but as I am doing so, his profile disappears. The prick beat me to it, and the petty side of me is annoyed. I think I’m just going to pass out. Honestly, I don’t hate this. The side of me who hates courting people has now overtaken my sex drive (the way it should be), and all forces are back to equilibrium. I’m only upset at how good of a job I did making myself look hot when there is no one here to appreciate it. The wine puts a spell on me, and I fall asleep to the muffled voice of my housemate calling his long distance girlfriend from the floor above me.
Total spent-$0
Thursday 17th
5:00am: I wake up and feel lots of shame. I swipe a bit, but there is no one I’m attracted to. It shouldn’t be this hard to get laid. I delete tinder from my phone. Ooof I’m glad my moment of weakness was short lived this time. I’m sorry y’all has to lay witness this to this dumpster fire.
7:00am: I check my emails. Three days ago, I applied for a new credit card with Chase and my application still hasn’t been approved. Weird, I have a good credit score and last year when I applied for my american express it took like a day. I am planning on spending $500 on a new synth (I am currently lusting over the Megafm by twisted electronics), and this card has a $200 cash back for the first $500 spent in the first 3 months. I google how long this process will take. Some say it takes about a week. I can wait. Guess you guys won’t be around to share my joy of blowing all my monies on synths.
11:30am: It’s avocado toast time. I need the carbs to combat the grogginess the wine left me feeling. It doesn’t taste great because I’m pretty sure my avocados are overripe, but oh well.
12:00pm: I check my credit card statement. My mom has made a $170 grocery store order with my credit card. I get 6% cash back on groceries and she wants to help me with getting cash back. The last time I saw her she gave me a few hundred dollars in cash to cover this. I don’t mind because I needed cash to buy merch at shows and stuff, and my bank doesn’t have any branches or atms in the Boston area. It’s kind of inconvenient now because everywhere has gone cashless, but I’m sure it’ll come into use when life resumes again or if I buy something off FB marketplace. $170
5:30pm: I make more fried rice and eat dinner. I make enough for lunch tomorrow as well.
8:23pm: I watch the The Real Story of Paris Hilton, her new documentary on youtube. The main opening song is Jesus and Mary Chain's Just like Honey. I remember how much I love this song and how much I would like to actually own it. I hop onto discog and search for a copy of the LP Psychocandy and buy it. I use leftover paypal credit in my account from when I sold some clothes on depop to cover the cost. $25.19.
10:00pm: Wow, the documentary was actually pretty sad. I always felt bad for Paris because of her leaked sex tapes when she was just a teen (and how the media painted her as the villain/slut for it), but was shocked to learn how she and countless other girls was drugged and abused by their boarding schools.
2:00am: I finish catching up on work and go to bed.
Total spent-$195.19
10:00am: Shoot I overslept. I log into work asap. I missed my daily 9:00am morning stand up, but my boss is usually pretty relaxed about these things. I still feel bad about it.
12:00pm: Eat fried rice for lunch. My friend messages me if I wanted to go record shopping with him. To be honest, I’ve been avoiding unnecessary in person retail shopping and don’t want to spend anymore money on records this month, but I also know he takes rejection super personally. He's insecure and always in his head that everyone actually dislikes him. It’s probably a little true because he does act like a brat sometimes, but I think it's due to severe depression. I tell him I’ll be down and justify the outing due to the record shop being near an asian grocer I like. I need groceries anyways and haven’t been to this store since pre pandemic.
4:30pm: I log out of work. Finally, the weekend.
5:00pm I take an edible and get ready to leave my home.
6:20pm I take the T to Central and pay with my pre loaded transit card. Back in March, I loaded $20 onto it and now I’m down to $4.80. I guess I have to reload it soon again. My friend informs me he’ll be late. I’m starting to feel high so I walk around and look at all the restaurants doing outdoor dining. My favorite place in Central is only doing takeout.
7:00pm: My friend arrives. We go to the record shop. I’m really high at this point. The tight aisles of the record shop makes me nervous.
7:30pm: My friend makes some big purchases, but I leave empty handed. We head over to the Hmart across the street. It’s nice to buy asian groceries. I stock up on veggies, enoki mushrooms, frozen gyoza, tofu, and even let myself get a few snacks. $68
8:00pm: One of my friends just messages me that Ruth Bader Ginsburg just passed. Truly devastating to hear. What a crazy election year.
8:30pm: I’m home and have the munchies. I snack on some of the things I bought, but it doesn’t fill my cravings.
9:45pm: I decide that I am ordering Mickey Ds. I call my housemate downstairs and ask him if he wants anything. He laughs and says no, causing me to doubt my order. However, he encourages me to order anyways, as he wants to mooch off some of my fries. I order fries and a mcChicken, and he sticks around downstairs like a seagull. $11
10:15pm: My food arrives. I know I will regret this tomorrow.
Total spent-$79
8:00am: I regret ordering food last night. One of my friends once said to me “There is nothing you can eat that can make you feel as good as being skinny”. I’m not sure if I can agree with him, but it’s definitely true when it comes to fast food. My stomach hurts so bad. I distract myself by watching youtube in bed.
11:00am: I finally get up and call my mom. She informs me that one of my dad’s colleges passed from Covid-19 at age 40. That is so sad. It reminds me that getting laid can wait till next year. Rip my non existing sex life-- too soon for death jokes?
1:00pm: I work out in my living room (out of guilt for last night). I’ve been doing so well eating wise for the last few weeks and actually lost some of my quarantine weight. My only vice is that I love getting high, but I have no control when it comes to having the munchies.
2:00pm: The weather is starting to change, and it’s actually getting cold. It’s so strange. As a Calfornian, this time of year is usually the hottest. I pulled out a jacket I haven’t worn in a while. I find five dollars, a purple glittery gel pen, and an almost brand new pack of cigs in the pockets. What a score. I’m a seasonal social smoker, by that I mean that I only smoke when it gets cold and usually to meet new people in smoking pits at shows so I haven't touched a cig in months. To celebrate my finds and the changing of the seasons, I smoke one and it suppresses my post workout hunger.
4:00pm: I’m just watching tiktok on the couch, while snacking a little. I feel so guilty for being unproductive, but not enough to motivate myself to do something.
5:00pm: I move my ac unit from my room to the basement. Won’t be needing that for the rest of the year.
7:00pm: I make gyoza and hang out with my housemate playing video games (the newish Catherine reboot).
Total spent-$0
4:45am: I fell asleep on the couch last night. I drag myself to the bathroom to take out contacts and brush my teeth. I close my window, climb into my bed, and go back asleep. It’s so cold.
11:40am: I wake up and check my messages. My other housemate is finally coming home after staying with his new girlfriend at her place for the last two months. He asks us what we want from Blue Ribbon, a bbq place we always get takeout from together. The house votes on one and a half chicken, a pint of burnt ends, slab of ribs, a quart of brisket, and a side of coleslaw. We split the cost three ways. $34
2:05pm: My housemate still hasn’t come home with food, but I’m hella hungry. Apparently he ordered from the wrong location and now has to go to another to pick up the food.
2:30pm: We eat bbq and then cake. My housemate accidentally missed my other housemate’s birthday, while he was gone living with his girlfriend so he brought makeup dessert.
3:30pm: We play video games (Smash ultimate) together for a few hours.
6:00pm: Everyone retires to their room except me. I sit on the couch and waste time on tictok. It sucks to be the only person in the house without a partner to call. I like being independent and openly acknowledge that I’m emotionally unavailable, but these last few months have made me question what I really need.
8:00pm: I go back to my room to get some work done.
12:30am: I feel lonely. I fall asleep to a documentary about Candy Darling.
Total spent-$34
8:00am: Wake up. Check my emails. I ordered a skirt from a seller on Thrilling (vintage clothing site) 3 weeks ago and it still hasn’t been sent out. I’m unhappy about this. I messaged Thrilling last week and the customer service rep reached out to the seller, and the seller said they will have it out by Saturday, but USPS tracking begs to differ. The item is still in pre shipment.
10:00am: I snack on blueberries as I work.
4:30pm: I log out of work. I eat BBQ leftovers for dinner and half a cookie. I open my 3rd la croix of the day. I’m down to only having two 12 packs. Will probably have to restock next week. I have a la croix addiction and go through 3-4 a day.
5:00pm: My housemate’s girlfriend swings by with a package from an online purchase he made (the one that just came back yesterday). He goes out to the driveway to meet her and tries to convince her to come in. She refuses because she’s self conscious of her quarantine weight. Big sad for me. I have yet to meet her and I was kind of looking forward to it. I haven’t interacted with another woman irl for a really really long time, and I really miss all my girlfriends in California. My housemate tells me that she said she’ll be willing to meet us once she loses weight first. I take that as I’ll never meet her.
5:30pm: I play video games with housemates to get in my daily socialization fix.
7:00pm: I practice playing banjo.
9:30pm: I do some more work before bed. Today was a standard boring day.
Total spent- $0
8:30am: I’m pleased that day’s are getting shorter and the sun is no longer waking me up at 5am everyday. I sleep next to multiple windows and the glare of the sun loves to hit directly where my pillows and head lie. While dressing I put on a bodysuit that I love, but I haven’t worn since college and a pair of Tripp raver pants. I can’t believe that up until I moved to Boston, I used to dress like this. There is so much side boob. Boston has made me so much more conservative in the way I dress, and I cover up. I put on a tight cardigan and am impressed with myself. Earlier this spring, this cardigan did not look good on me. Seems like my diet is working even though I did fudge up this weekend.
12:00pm: I eat leftovers for lunch and read today’s money dairy. The writer is similar to my age, which peaks my interest (also the mention of bumble in the title). I feel lonely. I need to stop thinking about dating apps. I can’t wait until it is safe to pick up men and women under dark lighting and liquid courage again.
4:30pm: I log out of work, and begin editing my money diary entries. It’s pretty therapeutic and feels like I’m talking to a group of new friends. There are a lot of grammar and spelling mistakes. I’m dyslexic so please bear with me.
5:00pm: I stir fry leftover rice, some leftover bbq meat, egg, broccoli, baby bok choy, and edamame. Dinner is ready. One of my housemates comes downstairs and also makes dinner and eats.
5:30pm: We play smash bros for a bit. I’m surprised our other housemate doesn’t come downstairs to join us. It’s been so long since he’s lived with us I forgot he always randomly falls asleep at weird times.
6:30pm: We retire to our rooms. I practice playing the banjo for a bit, while I chat with a friend through text.
9:15pm: Just doing some more work.
12:00am: Can't sleep so I exercise.
Food + Drink $113
Fun / Entertainment $25.19
Other $170
Lastly, reflect on your diary! Spending wise, this is a pretty typical week for me post pandemic. Most days I don’t spend money, but once or twice a month I would drop quite a bit of money (usually $500-600) on hobby related things, like the synth I mentioned in this diary. My spending has dramatically increased during the quarantine because I need to find ways to entertain and stimulate myself. Pre-pandemic most of my discretionary spending was spent on day trips and going to shows, which is pretty cheap and added up to no more than $400 a month. I was hardly ever home and when I was it was to wind down so I invested way less into my hobbies. I also spent less on food. Since spending more time with my housemates, the idea of takeout has become more normalized for me (I used to eat out once or twice a month, now I get take out at least once a week).
submitted by Darkchurchhill to MoneyDiariesACTIVE [link] [comments]

2020.09.23 15:31 daprice82 Wrestling Observer Rewind ★ Sept. 16, 2002

Going through old issues of the Wrestling Observer Newsletter and posting highlights in my own words. For anyone interested, I highly recommend signing up for the actual site at f4wonline and checking out the full archives.
1-7-2002 1-14-2002 1-21-2002 1-28-2002
2-4-2002 2-11-2002 2-18-2002 2-25-2002
3-4-2002 3-11-2002 3-18-2002 3-25-2002
4-1-2002 4-8-2002 4-15-2002 4-22-2002
4-29-2002 5-6-2002 5-13-2002 5-20-2002
5-27-2002 6-3-2002 6-10-2002 6-17-2002
6-24-2002 7-1-2002 7-8-2002 7-15-2002
7-22-2002 7-29-2002 8-5-2002 8-12-2002
8-26-2002 9-2-2002 9-9-2002

PROGRAMMING NOTE: Sticking with the morning Wednesday posting schedule for now due to real-life job obligations. We'll see how it continues to go. Just gotta make it through 2002 somehow. And one final note, RIP to Road Warrior Animal. When I was a kid growing up on wrestling in the early 90s, Ultimate Warrior and Animal were my 2 favorites because I loved their face paint designs. I used to buy the paint kits from WWF Magazine so I could paint my face like them. Hawk's design was always simple and boring but Animal, with the spider in the middle of his head and all that, was the coolest to me.

  • Our top story this week is none other than Hot Lesbian Action! Dave says it was one of those moments where you'd want to bury your head in a hole if anyone was in the room watching the show with you. Coming off several bad weeks in a row and ratings bottoming out, plus the beginning of Monday Night Football, WWE decided to bring out the big guns and go back to what made them money in the past: controversy and sleaze. The entire show was built around the promise that viewers would see lesbians getting it on in the ring and everything else, the wrestling, the was all secondary. Jerry Lawler "was the most annoying he's ever been" on this episode. It came off as a crass and desperate ratings grab and make no mistake: the TV stations that carry Raw were embarrassed by it too. TNN put out a statement saying, "TNN takes serious issue with the content of Monday night's WWE Raw episode, and has expressed its deep concern to the WWE. We don't condone the content of this episode, and will work diligently to ensure that similar occurrences do not appear again on our network." In Canada, TSN edited some of the segment out of the show and many stations in Europe did as well. 2 days prior to the show, someone from WWE (Dave thinks it was Bruce Prichard) reached out to UPW and brought in 2 of their valets, Looney Lane and Savvy, to portray the lesbians. Bischoff directed traffic as the two women got down to their underwear and began kissing but then the Island Boyz came out and destroyed them. Jamal in particular nailed Lane with a stiff superkick that legitimately bruised her ribs. Dave thinks this whole angle was pointless. Even if it leads to a one-week ratings boost, the TV networks have made it clear they weren't happy, so it's not like WWE can do it again or go further with it. So...what did it accomplish? (Sorry folks, you'll need to check the Network for video of this. I can only find the Stephanie McMahon HLA segment from Unforgiven, which we'll get to in 2 weeks. This segment seems to have been scrubbed from the internet).
  • This was followed up at the Smackdown tapings with the gay wedding build-up with Billy and Chuck, which got a little mainstream publicity in the days leading up to it. They were everywhere promoting it, but WWE also made it clear ahead of time that neither Billy Gunn or Chuck Palumbo are gay and that the whole thing was a publicity stunt. Howard Stern said WWE fans wouldn't want to see it and ESPN hosts Tony Kornheiser and Michael Wilbon were calling it a desperate ratings grab and saying WWE would be finished after this angle. This angle hasn't aired on TV yet but Dave heard it ran really long and the Undertaker vs. Matt Hardy match afterwards got cut way short as a result. Dave knows Bischoff ended up being revealed as the minister and the Island Boyz came out again and beat everyone up, including Stephanie McMahon but that's all he knows. WWE was extremely concerned about this whole angle coming off as homophobic and confiscated a ton of signs at the doors of the arena, mostly the kind of homophobic stuff you're probably thinking (more on this next week obviously).
  • It's all but official that the recent PRIDE/K-1 event in Tokyo is going to go down as the highest grossing live sports entertainment event (wrestling or MMA) in history. The final number isn't confirmed, but the live gate surpassed the $7 million record that was set back in 1998 for Inoki's retirement match with Don Frye at the Tokyo Dome. The American record, held by Wrestlemania 18, is barely half that ($3.9 million). So yeah, pretty big hit.
  • Four days after being handed a world title, Triple H took on Brock Lesnar at Raw house shows this week in champion vs. champion matches. So much for making something like that feel special. Lesnar worked many Raw house shows this week because he was advertised for them weeks ago, back before WWE made the spur of the moment decision to move him to Smackdown exclusively. Regarding Triple H holding that title, as you can imagine, there's a good deal of talk about that backstage. Even people who aren't usually anti-Triple H are side-eyeing his relationship with Stephanie now and asking questions about just how powerful Triple H is becoming. With Rock and Austin gone for now, it's said that Triple H sees this as his time to be the top star of WWE, but Lesnar's rapid rise has clearly dwarfed Triple H in the last few months. So suddenly, Lesnar gets shipped off to Smackdown and Triple H is handed a world title with his own show to headline. Needless to say, it raised some eyebrows. Anyway, Lesnar is also working Smackdown house shows when it doesn't conflict with a Raw show and in Minnesota, they did the first ever Lesnar vs. Kurt Angle match, which is something that's been discussed as a potential Wrestlemania match down the road. Since it was Minnesota, Lesnar was a huge babyface and the match was said to be really good.
  • Wrestling book review time. First up, Bobby Heenan's autobiography "Bobby The Brain: Wrestling's Bad Boy Tells All" was written with the help of wrestling magazine writer Steve Anderson. There's not a lot of depth to the book, it's mostly a collection of amusing stories from his career. Heenan doesn't leave any shades of gray though, he makes it clear who he liked and disliked. He said his time in WCW was the 6 worst years of his life and only had good things to say about Hogan, Mike Tenay, and Ric Flair. Didn't seem like he cared for many other people in that company. He talked about how poorly run the promotion was and pointed to Goldberg's streak ending and the Fingerpoke of Doom moments as the beginning of the end of WCW. He said on the night of the fingerpoke, he and Tenay both realized the ship was sinking and said Tony Schiavone gave both of them shit for being negative and paranoid. Heenan had good things to say about Verne Gagne, making him one of the few people that does. And of course, he loved Gorilla Monsoon. He tore into Schiavone, WCW producer Craig Leathers, and Leathers' production assistant Annette Yother, who Heenan hated so much, he wouldn't even call her by her name in the book and insulted her throughout. Overall, it's entertaining, and not an embarrassment, but not a must-read or anything either.
  • There's another book on the history of St. Louis wrestling that he reviews, but it's more for historians and full of records and attendance figures and match cards from old St. Louis wrestling shows over the decades dating back to the 1800s. Dave figures this won't appeal to casual fans at all, but for historians or people (like him) who can use this sort of thing as a reference guide, it's invaluable.
  • Just for shits and giggles, when discussing top draws and drawing money, Dave does the all-time list of wrestlers who have headlined the most PPVs that did 1.0 buyrates or higher. Top 5 in case you're curious: Hulk Hogan (22), Steve Austin (20), Ric Flair (17), The Rock (17), and Triple H (9). This doesn't include Summerslam 2002, so if the final buyrate for that ends up breaking the 1.0 mark, then Rock will pass Flair on the list.
  • Zero-1 in Japan is trying to get Akira Maeda to come out of retirement to work matches with Shinya Hashimoto and Naoya Ogawa. They're also trying to get Riki Choshu involved as well. If you don't know the history, Maeda vs. Choshu would be a dream match based on their history. Back in 1987, during a match in NJPW, Maeda double-crossed Choshu for real and kicked him in the face as hard as he could, breaking Choshu's orbital bone. The incident got Maeda fired from NJPW but he used the publicity from it and revived the UWF promotion where he became their top star. Choshu and Maeda never had a match together again, although if they had, it would have done monster business. But it's been 15 years, so Dave isn't sure how big it would be today (this never happens. Maeda retired in 1995 and stayed retired).
  • Dave saw the 2 recent AJPW shows featuring Goldberg. It was fine. Goldberg had the biggest presence and star power on the show and got a great reaction. He looked great physically but didn't do much in the ring worth noting. Quick matches that got over well, but didn't set the world afire or anything.
  • Dream Stage, the parent company of PRIDE, is apparently getting involved in promoting pro wrestling as well, working with AJPW and with hopes to have more Goldberg involvement. The company purchased the rights to merchandise AJPW in the United States, which would one to think the idea is to put together an AJPW show in the U.S. with Goldberg on the card, or at the very least, sell DVDs of AJPW in the U.S. Dave thinks PRIDE has far more potential to catch on in the U.S. than AJPW does, even with Goldberg's involvement. MMA fans respect and accept PRIDE as a legitimate promotion here, but most wrestling fans don't care about anything other than WWE.
  • No real notes from NOAH's latest shows, but just wanted to mention that every time Dave recaps these shows, he comments on how good and how popular KENTA is becoming.
  • NJPW's latest tour kicked off and featured Chyna in tag matches working against men. Not just job guys either. She was in there against names like Jushin Liger and IWGP champion Yuji Nagata. After the first night, Chyna cut a promo challenging Nagata for the title. NJPW is in a tough spot here. The freak-show aspect of having Chyna wrestling men in NJPW is getting a lot of publicity and she's getting paid a lot, so they can't just job her out. But there's also a credibility issue. This isn't the big, muscular Chyna of 1997. It's the IWGP champion selling for a Playboy model. As you can imagine, all of the NJPW wrestlers hate working with her but, as Yuji Nagata once said, "Inoki bullshit, but you gotta go with it."
  • Speaking of Inoki bullshit, there's more. First of all, he talked about starting a promotion in the U.S. with Chyna as the top star and also said he's working to bring X-Pac and DDP to Japan. Dave thinks X-Pac in NJPW might not be a bad idea. But DDP is 1. retired due to injury and 2. still under WWE contract. Inoki also publicly invited several non-NJPW wrestlers to come participate in their upcoming Tokyo Dome show. In particular, he named Keiji Muto and Shinya Hashimoto. But both of them publicly turned him down, both saying they have no interest in doing anything with NJPW. Dave thinks it's a bad look when you try to do business in front of the public only to get embarrassingly turned down in public.
  • Other NJPW notes: American Dragon is debuting for the company in October. Hart family friend T.J. Wilson will be coming to NJPW later in the year, under the name Stampede Kid, doing a cowboy gimmick. Dave explains how Wilson is basically an honorary member of the Hart family and is incredibly talented.
  • With little advance notice, Ultimo Dragon made his in-ring return in his own Toryumon promotion, his first match since a botched surgery in WCW ended his career in 1998. They teased his arm being in bad shape and he sold it big when his opponent attacked it.
  • Dave had a long talk with Bret Hart this week, which is one of the few times in this newsletter I've ever seen Dave just outright say, "I talked to this person, here's what he told me." He says Hart is very positive on his outlook for recovery and is seeing major improvements over the last few weeks. He thinks within a month, you won't be able to tell by looking at him that he had a stroke. He's able to control his facial muscles better now and aside from weakness on his left side, he's starting to feel halfway normal again. He talked about the show in Montreal for Rougeau and said he did it as a favor because he had promised beforehand, but felt he wasn't ready and broke down crying in front of the crowd. He also said he doesn't think there's any connection between his stroke and the career-ending concussion he suffered from Goldberg in 1999. The issues were in different parts of the brain and doctors think they're unrelated.
  • Oprah Winfrey's show this week talked about the effect of professional wrestling on children and she and her guest (some guy who wrote a book about parents using TV as a babysitter) both agreed that wrestling teaches kids that violence is acceptable to resolve conflicts and that it degrades women.
  • Notes from Raw: William Regal joined the UnAmericans. Terri Runnels & Trish Stratus vs. Victoria & Stacy Keibler was so bad that Dave was praying for a Jackie Gayda run-in by the end. Dave thinks Victoria can be a big star, but they've done nothing to make her feel like anything special. Triple H has lost some weight and muscle mass and was moving better, but he also beat Spike Dudley with a sleeper hold, a move that hasn't been over in decades, and put the crowd to sleep faster than Spike.That being said, Dave thinks guys should have more than one finisher and it takes time to establish a move and get it over, so if this is the start of that, he's fine with it. And pretty much everything else was lesbians, lesbians, lesbians!
  • Steve Austin dropped divorce proceedings against Debra last week. Apparently they've decided to try to work it out (this clearly changes again soon. Their divorce ends up being finalized in February).
  • Random WWE notes: OVW held a big show with a bunch of now-WWE stars such as Lesnar, Orton, Cena, Rico, Victoria, and others all appearing, as well as Benoit. The OVW stars beat the WWE stars in most of the matches. Lesnar suffered a minor injury at the house show the night before, so WWE wouldn't let him wrestle, which is why they sent Benoit as a make-good. Tommy Dreamer's wedding next month is to former ECW valet Beulah McGuillicutty. Test got surgery to remove the gynaecomastia from his chest, same surgery the Rock and others have had. Speaking of surgery, Jerry Lawler had cosmetic surgery on his face as well, with work on his jawline and around his eyes. That's why he was wearing sunglasses on Raw or using binoculars when they cut to him during the HLA segment and why his face looked swollen. Dave says this isn't the first time, and as far back as 15 years ago, Lawler got surgery to get rid of the beginnings of a double-chin. Lilian Garcia signed a recording contract with Universal Records, with a single releasing next month.
  • Chris Jericho was on Bubba The Love Sponge's radio show, out of character. He said he's not interested in winning the WWE title anymore because he already accomplished all his wrestling goals, now he just wants to entertain fans and help get new stars over. He talked about how losing to Cena recently was his idea and he had to talk them into it. Hulk Hogan called in and put over how great Jericho is.
  • Nathan Jones won an appeal in the courts last week to get a work visa so he can come work in the U.S. He's been able to travel everywhere except the U.S., but an arrest from several years ago prevented him from getting a visa to work here, which is why WWE dropped his developmental contract. With that taken care of, Dave figures we'll probably see him in WWE soon.
  • Filming for Rock's next movie "Helldorado" was delayed due to the presence of an endangered species of bird called a Bell's Vireo bird. Until the bird leaves the area, they weren't allowed to film. That's hilarious.
NEXT WEDNESDAY: controversial fallout from both the HLA and Billy & Chuck angles, WWC in Puerto Rico has a disastrous weekend, details on death of a wrestler training with Dalip Singh, and more...
submitted by daprice82 to SquaredCircle [link] [comments]

2020.09.23 08:06 TheGamerican Straight Men going on Gay Apps - Women Abusing Men

As the title states, There is a lot of Straight men are more likely to end up on a gay app then on sites and apps like Tinder and Match. The gay apps in question are Grindr, WWWbears, Grrr, Growlr, Adam4Adam, and many more. But can anyone understand the reason why at all? Your guess is as good as mine. I honestly think at this point it has to do with the left's style of feminism has grown too much to be a waste land that only the "Wonder Womans" can live this this side of life. They never think twice about calling a man a misogynist. Even when a man has made no action or said anything to lead to this word being used.
I'll keep this simple. You can call me The G American. G is for the "gay" clearly. I'm in my late 20s and had many dates, relationships, and at the moment single and looking. However dating for myself has been a harder road then it was 7 years ago when I tried to use these apps and sites before. For the past 3 years trying to look for a real date and not just a one night stand. I honestly about done with just random hook ups, dates that only last for about 2 weeks at most. The longest relationship I had lasted about 6 years but the man I was with was not who I thought he was and is now in jail.
You can say yes I have picked up some bad apples and sadly the hard part of dating people is that you'll meet a lot of people you either do not get along with or some of them lie to your face. I will say Gay dating has been hard for me in 5 states now. California, Texas, Tennessee, Illinois, And lastly Missouri.
I would like to say I have given up trying at this point but I'm too stupid to stop trying. I do want a man in my life that is loving, cares for me, only wants me and me alone, makes jokes about really stupid people, has a level head, and is responsible. Yes being my type of man in the "looks" department is a hard one - I'm picky. But looks, age, and so on don't seem to matter to me as much anymore. Plus I have porn for that anyways. Just need someone who is not two faced.
When it comes to Straight men going onto the apps it's something a lot of people are asking. Why? Ever since the left side of our politics got bigger and louder, the actions of many people changed and gotten more rude, violent, and careless. This also changed how a lot of women that are in a relationship with men. A lot of the men tend to get abused by their female partners and most of the time if not all the time get turned off or turned away from wanting to be with a woman.
A lot of heterosexual men at this point feel trapped. When I went out on, about 13 dates, with men that used to only date women that same thing always came from their mouths about how mean and evil their ex wives or girlfriends turned into in recent years. And then they would wonder what it would be like to date another man. Sad to say, guys, this does not always work out for gay men. We might relate to some level but we have to face some harsh facts.
1.) We do not have female parts. Having sex with us gay men can and might be better for you! We gay guys know how to work the tools for sure. But the question is are you going to be able to keep doing it? Think about this. Because some of us want a strong relationship with a man that wouldn't think twice about cheating. Some guys might want a open relationship but then you put a lot at risk if you do that. Gay sex is very different in many ways and a lot of the hetero men back you in the middle of having a good time because of the fear they might have. And before you ask, no, this is not what being homophobic is.
2.) The life style is different. Every gay guy is different from feminine to masculine and even sometimes a mix between the two. We even have some Tom Boy types! So getting to know what you might be more "into" can be a bit harder because of where your coming from.
This isn't to bash you guys, at all. But it does make a lot of us worried about the future about our own spaces. You might not know this but behind closed doors a lot of gay men tend to make fun of straight men all the time for the actions they do and the words that comes from them. As the old saying goes "If he's straight then why the hell is he f***ing other dudes?"
We want you to be included into our lives as friends and all. But with the way things have been going for quite a while is not going very well.
Heterosexual: sexually attracted to people of the opposite sex. AKA in terms of slang - Straight. No ifs and or buts about it.
When a heterosexual is thinking or wanting to be with the same sex then more than likely your are labeled as; Bi-curious. A term for a person, usually someone who is a heterosexual, who is curious or open about engaging in sexual activity with a person whose sex differs from that of their usual sexual partners.
Yes I am aware this is going to "trigger" some low lives. So at this point I'm going to rant off a few things. These will be personal opinions below.
Between us, the whole gender and sex topic from the left wants to include everyone in one pile up, and every time it from ugly looking freak with a dog collar on 24/7 that loves to think they are smarter then everyone and always right. Sadly they are not. Not everyone is going to have THE SAME LIFE STYLE! Don't listen to them they are just upset they can not get laid by Daniel Radcliffe.
What we do need to understand is this. If your wanting to try to date other men please make that perfectly clear. Do not hide it till the last second. Once you have been with another guy and figure out wither your gay, straight, or even bisexual, etc, etc. You should be good to go and not fear about being labeled gay or a fag.
To be honest every time someone yells at me "fag" or "omfg your f***ing gay? dude wtf!?" I fire back with jokes that make those fools stumble and fall. Very few will respect me afterwards. As for the ones that don't they really do not think that guys like me are able to defend themselves.
Ladies need to be more aware and treat their men better. Because a lot of these men that go on our apps are married to you girls STILL and go on the app to f*** other men behind your back. Yes it's bad enough if it was another woman. But from what I have seen many times before, when the husband cheats on their wife with another male, a lot more problems and confusion come up and sometimes this drives some of you ladies insane and do things you would not ever normally do. Some of the things I hear from your men and what you do to them that hurts them very badly and it has an effect. A lot of you stupid girls have been thought that being equal means you can treat men badly to get your way every time. Heck I meet more homophobic women then I do homophobic men.
If your goal is social justice, this is not that. This is just mental abuse. If it comes down to it, us gay men might just take your men away and treat them much better then you ever could. And we are more than happy to stay as far away from you. Leave you in the hole you dug.
The outside world is not a jail cell. We should not be going to the point where heterosexual men are almost forced to stray away from wanting to be with a woman.
submitted by TheGamerican to u/TheGamerican [link] [comments]

2020.09.23 04:27 borednightnurse1990 Smile! You’re on camera! 😂

Currently working on a project regarding fellow females asking about whats life like in the military as a female. I plan on it being a series that i would then plug in this page and anywhere people want to see it. To those of you who requested them, please bear with me as i seem to be suffering from an extended period of stupidity writer’s block. In the meantime, enjoy some funny shenanigans.
I mentioned some details about this story in the comments section of a post in militarystories. I sanitized it as best as i can, so sorry for any potential disconnects that may have resulted.
Unknown date, time, and location
Nah. Just fucking with ya. I was in my work breakroom just killing time till i have to go back to work. Part of my job description involves defeating lock mechanisms, rather uhm, explosively. A part of me has always been curious what its like to defeat them like a proper villain.
So i got a set of lockpicks online. Its a small 15?25? piece beginner’s set. I had just gotten past the couple of Master brand locks i owned and was currently working on defeating an Abus brand lock.
It was in this state that my immediate boss found me when he walked in to get some coffee.
Boss: hey. Didnt know you pick locks. Btw, dya have a permit for that?
Me: uhm. No?
Boss: hate to be that guy, but consider this a verbal counselling then. Break in tools are regulated and required to be registered and anyone who wishes to possess them must have training certification and licensed by the (our federal level of government). Failure to do so as a civillian is a criminal offense. Failure to do so as a military member is conduct unbecoming and subject to disciplinary actions. Your disciplinary action today will be this verbal counselling. Understood?
Me: yes sir. I will fix this right away.
Boss: good. Ah. Before you put that away, mind doing me a favour?
Me: huh?
Boss: i just filed some important paperwork with MY boss. He’s already gone on personal leave and i just realized i fucked up some details on a couple of them. (Not a career ender type of fuck up, but definitely resulting in a loss of face for him since he just wasted his boss’ time if he had to redo less than ideal paperwork.)
Boss: think you can use those tools of yours to open his office and get those papers for me?
Me: uhm. I dunno sir. I just got slapped on the dick by my boss for using unlicensed tools.
Boss: do me a solid and ill make it worth your while.
Me: okayyyy. Im trusting you sir.
Deed done. Months passed by, never saw any record of that verbal counselling on my personnel file. I thought that was the solid he promised me. Until one day when he called me to his office.
Boss: here’s some paperwork. These are temporary detachment orders. You’re chopped on detached duty to (Some school. Its the school where our federal and military LEOs take on advanced fieldcraft and investigative training). The current crop of trainees are currently in their field phase. You will sit in with them and train with them, and audit their classes for the remainder of their training. Once done, their instructors will give you certification papers, a locksmith/lockbreaker license, and a permit to possess those handy dandy tools of yours. You wont be able to get the qualification for their actual training course, but youre not a cop anyway so it doesnt matter. Plus, it will raise some eyebrows if i push too hard on sending a (my trade) to cop school. Thats the best i can do for that solid you did for me last time. We even?
Me: fuck yeah. Were good sir. Might even owe you a beer for this.
fast forward to cop school.
I learned more than i bargained for. Oh. My. Gawd. Picking locks is the least of what i expected to learn to do. First off, i was expecting to go there and be a student. I never expected that i was sent to the “advanced” class. Teach the teacher kind of thing. Amongst other things, i also learned how to:
-jump start cars manually like how they do in movies
-high risk search techniques that only super advanced operators in my job are qualified to do
-crack a basic safe
-pick pocketing
-surveillance and counter surveillance techniques, both mounted and dismounted
-in person and online information gathering
-social media sleuthing
-evasive driving maneouvres
-aggressive driving maneouvres
-PIT maneouvres and J turns
-close protection techniques
-how to modify regular clothing and accessories to hide anything you want
But those are boring stuff. I also got the chance to chill and hang out with the cops and coppettes in my “class” after hours. Those guys practiced on each other ruthlessly. There is just no pause button with them. Drills and practice doesnt stop just because class is dismissed. To bring me up to speed and get me involved with their Gladiator-like sparring environment, they taught me everything they have been trained on. It was an intense 5 weeks.
But there’s a kicker. Let’s go back a bit: all the lockpicking and breaking in portion of the course was only taught in a matter of 2 weeks. A paperwork fuck up stated that I was on TDY for 5 weeks. Im guessing the clerks assumed that since i am going to audit a class that has only one 5 week training module left, that i will be attending that entire 5 week’s worth of training, not a sub, sub section of that module. So i have the choice of:
-go back home and enjoy a 2 week paid vacation
-stay and play tourist at (town where cop school is at)
-stay in cop school
With the LOL (Love Of my Life) gone on a joint ex with the Americans, i decided to stay in school once my two weeks was over. I approached my instructors and told them about my remaining 3 weeks. Technically, they no longer own me since they only signed off on having me as a guest for 2 weeks. BUT, my end of the paperwork says that they do. So i asked if i could stay and continue auditing their class. Housing, feeding, training, and being responsible for an extra human in combats for another 3 weeks is a big responsibility so i offered to have my name taken off the berthing and quartering nominal roll and ill just live and eat at the local Officer’s Club. They agreed with a couple conditions:
  1. I can’t mention any of this to anyone, let alone the bean counters.
  2. I have to help them fuck with their trainees’ heads for their field phase.
Okay. That’s all the backstory this post needs, i promise. Youre up to speed now. So, for the next 3 weeks, i was still at the school, attending classes, hanging out with my cop buddies, and picking their brains on everything they learned. Since i was literally the only female in their class, they were also interested in teaching me about female specific fieldcraft that they only learned about in theory.
Flirting. Lots of flirting. Thats what they taught me to do. That’s not a fair description for it, but thats basically what it is. How to exploit your “womanly” advantages and combine it with your basic interrogation skills, and then use it in an “information gathering” context.
For three weeks, i was a wolf amongst wolfdogs. They took me in as one of their own, taught me everything they knew, and trusted me completely, never knowing that every single scrap of knowledge they passed on to me was valuable currency being contributed to the “fuck fuck games with future po-lice trainers fund”.
Every night we would all troop to the local bar and have a few pints, shooting the shit and messing around with each other. Every single one of those nights, i turned the lesbian volume level down to zero, and cranked the little Lolita knob all the way up to bitchin.
Every female i personally know in any combat arms/national defense/intel job has one badass female icon they look up to and fantasize to be. For me, its a combo of ScarJo’s Black Widow and Bridget Fonda’s La Femme Nikita. For 3 weeks, I was La Femme Black Widow.
Every time i step out to go for a drink with the boys, i was always in my “dress to kill” outfits: either little black dresses that’s not too slutty but show just enough skin to get their attention, tight leggings and body hugging tops, and hair always down and flipped or flicked out of my face at strategic times in a sultry manner when im talking to someone.
I have no words to describe its effects on men. Let me clarify something here. While i wouldnt consider myself ugly or even average looking, i wouldnt exactly consider myself a smokeshow babe either. Im just your regular woman. I look good while wearing some stuff, i look average while wearing some others, and i look like a disgraceful abomination to my gender while wearing my regular daily wear. Good Lord. I have a picture of myself on my worst shark week ever, just days after having a new IUD installed, and i look like even Satan would be pushing rope once he saw me.
Anyways, yeah. Alcohol + men + loneliness + isolation from loved ones + foxy lay-deh all equals to stupid, monumental lapses of judgment. While im sure those men have absolutely no intention of cheating on their significant others, or even any ulterior motives on me (they respected me enough and professional enough for that), things definitely got, interesting.
During their final classroom lecture, where they are supposed to be doing the AAR for the class, the instructors called me up front and center.
Instructor: standing in front of you is a person, can anyone here tell me something about her?
Classmate 1: oh, that’s (my rank) u/borednightnurse1990, a (my trade) from (my branch). She’s an honourary member of our course, sent here to join and audit us 5 weeks ago. She’s (my age), married to (my wife), and loves doing (my hobbies).
Instructor: all good observations. Also, wrong. Tell me, what is wrong with your classmate’s observations?
Instructor: here’s what’s wrong: she was only your classmate for the first 2 weeks. For the rest, she was a combatant behind enemy lines. Her enemies are you, you, you, fuck it, all of you are her enemies.
Here, (turns around to the whiteboard) let me show you jackalopes something.
flips white board dramatically
On the whiteboard are several very compromising items on pretty much every single person in our class i had managed to collect.
-pieces of really personal info about every single individual that i social engineered from their relatives and friends as a result of unsecured online footprints
-copies of their really embarassing MySpace profiles. Do you know that MySpace has always defaulted to public profiles because it was created in a day and age when online persec was non existent? And that 9 out of 10 people who created MySpace accounts has already forgotten their log in/pws? Maaaan. The stupid embarassing shit left locked in public view in that site is just amazing. 😂
-a PKI card. I actually felt bad for this one. I was trying to pickpocket a buddy’s wallet from his coat and i panicked so i swiped the first card i could thumb out of it and quickly slipped it back in his coat before he realized. I was expecting an Interac or a credit card and was surprised when i saw a PKI card. He got a for realsies ass chewing on this one.
-and the coup de grace: i was wearing a reaaaaaaalllllyyyy discrete bodycam the whole time i was out with them. Maaaan. The footage is a pure gold mine. I cant get into the specifics of it: but just imagine a bunch of grown men, doing stupid things only a teenager would do, all to somewhat impress a “girl” cheering and egging them on. Okay, here’s one specific thing: i was wearing two cameras all the time at two different strategic locations on my body. There is a sped up montage of all footage i collected, with a counter on the top left of the screen counting how many times my coursemates made direct eye contact with my “cameras”. Ill let you put two and two together. The end part of that 2 minute montage is a video of me mailing CDs to their wives, girlfriends, and mothers. (All pretend of course. Just for shits and giggles) 😂😂😂
Once select video clips were played in class, it was pure pandemonium. Amidst the sound of general laughter from the staff and embarassment from the students, I was pelted with paper balls, boo’ed, and at one time got yelled at for being a “ya stinkin’ traitorous Whore of Babylon!”, to which i replied by curtsying using a single extended middle finger pinching an imaginary skit against my thumb.
Fun times were had and i returned back to my home unit with a whole bunch of new friends and a new arsenal of tools and skills to add to my toolbox as a certified, government trained mischief maker.
I hope my story is as entertaining to you in prose form as it was for me in reality.
submitted by borednightnurse1990 to FuckeryUniveristy [link] [comments]

2020.09.23 02:33 SkyAnimal For fun, I compiled a Timeline of Archaeological, Genetic, and Geologic data. I think this is the audience that would appreciate it. (My observations in the comment section.)

A timeline of Human Development, using archaeological, genetic, and geologic data:
Earth's orbit experiences a Orbital Eccentricity, 100,000 year cycle orbit and inclination variation, going from circular to elliptical, the hemispheres experience more or less sun or exposure to the sun for extended periods, causing ice ages. Scientists estimate we are near the minimum, a 6% change in solar energy. At peak, the earth experiences a change of 30%.
44 million y a - Hominid ancestors acquire Herpes virus.
10 million y a - Primate ancestors develop genes to digest alcohol.
6 million years ago - Primate ancestors split from Chimpanzee/Bonobo line (15 million DNA mutations have occurred since then; each person born today has 100 mutations distinct to them, most don’t survive.)
5.3 m y a - Mediterranean Sea experiences the Messinian Salinity Crisis, for 600,000 years the Straight of Gibraltar closed off, causing the Mediterranean to shrink down to two inland seas with Italy and Greece separating them. Ends in the Zanclean Flood, a river of Atlantic sea water flows thru Gibraltar and fills the Mediterranean in 2 years.
5 m y a - Arabian-African continent reconnects with Asia.
4 - 3 m y a - Hominid ancestors acquire pubic lice from Gorillas (genetic evidence).
3.6 - 2.58 m y a - Considered the Neogene Period.
3.3 m y a - Stone tools found in Kenya and Ethiopia.
3-1.4 m y a - Chimpanzee Herpes oral virus mutates into Hominid genital virus, cross species transmission (Homo Habilis or Paranthropus Boisei).
2.6 m y a - Mode One Stone Tools found in Ethiopia, would subsequently spread. Flourished to 1.7 million y a in southern and eastern Africa. Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) Era (2.6 m y a till end of last Ice Age, 11,000 y a). Subdivided into the Early- or Lower Palaeolithic (c. 2,6 million years ago - c. 250,000 years ago); the Middle Palaeolithic (c. 250,000 years ago - c. 30,000 years ago); and the Late- or Upper Palaeolithic (c. 50,000/40,000 - c. 10,000 years ago
2.58 million - 11,700 years ago - Considered the start of the Quaternary Period, and covers the Pleistocene.
2 m years ago - Earliest Hominids start eating meat.
1.89 m y a - Earliest evidence of Homo Erectus (first to leave Africa and spread across Asia).
1.8 m years ago - Mode One Stone Tools found on Java.
1.7 m years ago - Mode Two Stone Tools (slicing, butchering, evidence of drilling tools) appear in Kenya and southern Africa.
1.6 m years ago - Mode One Stone Tools found in northern China.
1.6 - 1.5 m y a - Africa, Turkana Boy dies, likely from a tooth cavity infection. He was either 8 or 11-12 years old and 61 inches tall. Brain 880 ccm.
1.5 m y a - Kenya, possible start of Hominids using fire to cook food. (increase in caloric intake, which would lead to evolution; however, Paranthropus Boisei is the local species, brain 500-550 ccm, 54 inches tall)
1 million years ago - Likely split between ancestor of Homo Sapiens and proto-Neanderthal-Denisovan species. (Mitochondrial DNA evidence.) South Africa, evidence of fire use for cooking.
1 m - 700,000 y a - Java, Java Man dies, brain 900 ccm. 5' 8" tall.
820,000 - 580,000 y a - Durum Wheat develops out of natural hybridization with Einkorn Wheat (genetic analysis).
800,000? y a - Low world temperatures recorded. Height of Ice Age?
790,000 y a - Levant, oldest Fire hearths found. (Homo Heidelbergensis, 1,250 ccm brain, 69 in tall)
740,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?
640,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.
550,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?
540,000 - 430,000 y a - Art: Sea shell formed into decoration by Homo Erectus. (Could indicate when sea shells began to be used as whistles and horns.)
530,000? y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, high CO2 content in the atmosphere, 524-474,000).
500,000 y a - South Africa, evidence of Spears. (Would become common 300,000 years ago.)
450,000 y a - Earliest evidence of Neanderthal.
450,000 y a - Global temperatures had dropped, stayed that way for thousands of years.
430,000 - 230,000 y a - Durum Wheat cross-breeds with wild Goat Grass (genetic analysis).
400,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 424-374,000).
400,000 y a - Germany, oldest Spears found. France (Terra Amata), possible evidence of manmade shelter using prepared wood.
360,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.
310,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 337-300,000).
300,000 y a - Kenya, oldest evidence of Ochre rocks being used for pigment.
300,000-200,000 y a - Origin of Male Y-Chromosome that all current males are descended from. (40% of males do not reproduce.)
270,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.
240,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 242–230,000).
200,000 y a - France, evidence of Neanderthals fishing. "Mitochondrial Eve," source of all Human Haplo-groups that everyone is descended from, existed at this time. Scientists think that language with well formed, meaningful sentences was achieved (migration patterns, anatomy, tool making; some argue that truly modern language is 50,000 years old).
194,000-135,000 y a - Penultimate Glacial Period.
190,000 y a - Early evidence of Denisovans. (At least three interbreeding events would occur with Homo Sapiens. EPAS1 gene, hemoglobin concentration, Tibetan plateau.)
190,000-50,000 y a - Flores Island, evidence of tool use by the Human Hobbit.
170,000 - 80,000 y a - Body Lice evolve (genetic evidence, feed on human skin, live in clothing; evidence of clothing)
140,000 y a - Homo Sapiens found in Europe.
130,000 y a - Evidence of humans in North America. Crete, earliest human settlements found on the island. Art: Neanderthal necklace made of eagle talons. Croatia: Neanderthal teeth show possible dental work.
125,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 130-115,000). Sea levels 4-6 meters (18 feet) higher then today.
110,000-15,000 y a - Last Glacial Period.
100,000-60,000 y a - Flores Island, bone fossil evidence of the Human Hobbit.
100,000 y a - Oldest example of proper human burial. South Africa, Blombos Cave, pigment (paint) creation kit found; possible oldest evidence of abstract art.
75,000 years ago - Likely rise of Hunter Genotype in Homo Sapiens.
75,000 y a - Art: Drilled snail shells found in South African cave.
73,000 y a - South Africa (Blombos Cave), evidence of Red Ochre art on pieces of stone, stone with deliberate lines cut into it possibly representing count marks.
72,000 y a - South Africa, Beads found in cave.
70,000 y a - Mitochondrial DNA suggests this is when the Haplo-group of early humans migrated out of Africa to populate the rest of the world. Earliest evidence of Glue (sticky tree gum, ochre rocks, fat cooked over fire).
70-60,000 y a - Earliest evidence of bone and stone arrowheads, found in South Africa. 64,000?
70,000 - 35,000 BCE - Neanderthal burials in Europe and Middle East.
67,000 BCE - France, burial shows skulls with trepanation (cutting holes to relieve brain pressure), earliest example of surgery.
65,000 y a - First humans settle Australia.
64,000 y a - Spain, oldest evidence found of cave art (Neanderthal hand).
61,000 y a - South Africa, possible evidence of a Sewing Needle.
60,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?
60,000 y a - Evidence of man/Neanderthal using herbal medicine.
55,000 - 40,000 y a - Italy, evidence of Neanderthal using Pine Tree Resin and Beeswax for hafting tools, in cave.
52,000 y a - Last evidence of Denisovans.
52-41,000 y a - France, Neanderthal site, bast (tree inner fiber) yarn found (evidence of basic math and organizational skills for patterns and sets, clothing, nets, tools)
50,000 - 10,000 y a - Mode Four Stone Tools (long blades).
50,000 y a - Austrailia, last evidence of megafauna. Siberia, needle made from bone found with Denisovan cave.
50,000 years ago - End point of development of Gatherer genotype (can survive famine), Teacher (can handle new and different environments, analytical).
45,000 y a - Evidence of Neanderthal and Homo Sapien interbreeding. (Fossil found, DNA tested.)
44,000 y a - Evidence of art found in Indonesia.
44,000-40,000 y a - Europe experiences cold and dry weather, displacing populations.
43-42,000 y a - Germany, oldest musical instruments (flutes) found.
42,000 y a - Australia, skeleton of man suggests Atlatl use, pre-dating earliest evidence; earliest example of cremation found. Spain, small amounts of Natural Gold found in a cave.
40,000 y a - Last evidence of Neanderthal. (Inheritance of "STAT2" gene, immune response. HYAL2 gene, helps skin recover from sunburns.) China, test on body found that ate a lot of fresh water fish.
40,000 - 26,000 y a - Studying toe bones, showed they became smaller and weaker, indicating shoes were worn. Prior to this, shoes were likely bags wrapped around feet to protect from cold.
38,000 BC - First appearance of Mode Five ground stone tools on Japan. (rock was quarried; thin slivers of flint stone, attached to hafts, man is learning the use of a "handle" for tools and "leverage", create adzes, celts, and axes; grinding helps to penetrate trees and was likely discovered when grinding plant matter; found buried with owners; were traded) Lasted till 14,000 BC. (Would not become popular elsewhere until 10,000 BC?) Germany: clay figurine featuring human with lion like appearance, thought to be earliest representation of a deity.
40,000 y a - (Mankind is at the “Forager” level.) Possible example of oldest petroglyphs. Beads found in Lebanon.
35,000 BCE - Europe, earliest examples of "Venus figurines" found buried in graves (some showing they were deliberately broken or stabbed repeatedly); would later spread to rest of Eurasia. Early examples of skulls and long bones showing red ochre, indicating possible relic worship.
35,000 y a - Germany, flute made from a vulture bone found.
31,000 - 27,000 y a - Evidence of Pit Fire (Earthernware) Pottery developing.
30,000-20,000 years ago - Explorer genotype (Ice Age refugees, idiosyncratic, asymmetrical, contrarian mentality)
30-15,000 y a - DNA evidence of Denisovan interbreeding with Homo Sapiens.
30,000 y a - Evidence of starch residue on rocks, indicating where plant matter was pounded and ground. (Would likely be the pre-cursor of developing bread from roots of cattails and ferns. Quern Grinding Stones would spread and gain popularity) Georgia, Flax used as a textile (harvested, dyed, and knotted) found in Dzudzuana Cave. Fertile Crescent, Einkorn wheat harvested in it's wild form. Evidence of man using the Atlatl. Poland: Boomerang carved from mammoth tusk found.
28,000 y a - Europe, oldest evidence of rope.
25,000 - 15,000 BCE - Blood Type A develops in the Fertile Crescent.
27,000 y a - Australia, oldest example of petroglyphs found. Czech Republic, earliest example of "Weaving" of material together to create baskets and basic cloth.
26,000-13,300 y a - Considered "Glacial Maximum", ice sheets extend to the 45th parallel north. (26,500 considered to be maximum glacial reach.)
23,000 - 12,000 y a - Perforated Batons found, made of antler, assumed to be a form of Atlatl that uses a leather strap or string to wrap around the spear and give it a slight spin, arrow or spear thrower (similar to Swiss Arrow). Right and left handed throwers find preference. Most carved with Horses, have one or two holes (one had 8 holes).
23,000 y a - Israel, Ohalo archaeological site, hunter-gatherer society that grew/harvested barley, millet, and various fruits.
21,000-17,000 y a - France, Atlatl's found in caves.
20,000 y a - Height of the Ice Age, sea levels 120 meters (360 feet) lower. Earliest example of a building/house found. Ukraine, Bullroarer (wood on rope that is swung around to create sound over long distance) found.
19,050? - 13,050 y a - Oldest Dryas Period, stadial, abrupt cooling period. Sea levels rose 10-15 m in 500 years.
17,000 BCE - Mesopotamia, Wild Emmer Wheat harvested.
18,000 - 17,500 y a - Siberia, earliest example of a domesticated dog found frozen. Germany, Bow and Arrows found. Early evidence of Darts used.
18,000 y a - Japan, oldest pottery discovered.
15,100 - 14,000 y a - Morocco, earliest example of a cemetery.
15,000 y a - Southern France, cave art depicting possible Musical Bow, Nose Flute; "The Sorcerer," a figure showing human and many animal qualities.
14,500 y a - Oldest example of bread making, Jordan desert.
14,160 - 13,820 y a - Archaeological find: infected tooth partially cleaned out with flint tools.
14,600 - 13,600 y a - "Melt Water Pulse," sea levels rose 16-24 m.
14,000? y a - Older Dryas Period, around 200 year cooling period.
13,500 - 8,200 y a - China, wild Rice domestication event occurs.
15-10,000 BCE - Himalayas, development of Blood Type B.
12,000 - 9000 BCE - Mesolithic Era (Middle Stone Age)
11,050 BCE - Syria, attempts at domesticating Rye.
13,000 y a - Greece, evidence of lentils found. Earliest evidence of Amber used in jewelry. Israel, archaeological evidence of beer like gruel for ceremonial purposes found at Haifa. Likely beginning of Slavery.
13,000 - 12,700 y a - Fertile Crescent, archaeological evidence of man corralling and using pigs.
12,900 - 11,700 y a - The Younger Dryas Period, when temperatures went cold instead of warming from the Last Glacial Maximum. Started when a massive fresh water lake in North America flooded into the Atlantic Ocean.
10,000 BCE - Jericho, considered mankind's first town, is established. Buildings of clay and straw, dead buried under homes. (Would reach 70 dwellings by 94,000 BCE.) Chickpeas domesticated. (Mode Five Ground stone tools become popularly used across the Neolithic?) Earliest evidence of the Bottle Gourd being domesticated and used (Africa and Asia variety). Azerbaijan (Caspian Sea), petroglyphs of reed boats. Starting point of Ocarina type flutes.
11,700 y a - Considered the beginning of the Holocene.
9600 BCE - Southern Levant, earliest use of wild Emmer Wheat.
11,500 - 11,000 y a - "Melt Water Pulse," sea levels rose 28 m.
11,400 y a - Cyrpress, archaeological evidence of pigs (indicating they had been domesticated and brought from the mainland).
9400 - 9200 BCE - Jordan Valley, Fig trees found, indicating earliest agriculture since these trees could not reproduce.
9130 - 7370 BCE - SE Turkey, Gobekli Tepe, oldest known worship location.
9000 BCE - Syria, oldest (Saddle) Quern found. Mesopotamia, Copper first used.
9000 - 3300 BCE - Neolithic Era, roughly. Time period of when man has begun herding, before using bronze.
11,000 - 9,000 y a - Mesopotamia, domestication of Sheep; Rammed Earth construction technique developed.
11,000-4,000 years ago - Warrior genotype (farmers, soldiers, inventors); Nomad genotype (life upon a horse, can handle different environments, good immune system)
11 or 10,000 y a - Last Ice Age ends.
8800 BCE - Emmer Wheat spreads beyond the Levant.
8700 BCE - Iraq, Copper pendant.
8500 BCE - Domestication of Barley. Domestication of peas occurs around this time. Turkey, Beer production found at Gobekli Tepe. Domestication of Cattle from the Aurochs (two separate populations, one in Mesopotamia, the other Pakistan). Oregon, oldest pair of shoes found made from bark twine. Oats possibly start to be harvested, crop mirrors wheat (is like a weed).
10,300 - 8,700 y a - China, Millet harvested.
10,200 - 9,500 y a - Emmer Wheat domesticated(?).
10,000 - 7,000 y a - Archaeological evidence of boats.
8000 BCE (10,000 years ago) - Palestine, archaeological evidence of pastoralism. Pre-Pottery Neolithic people in the Fertile Crescent form perfectly smooth stone vases. Iran, Goat domestication. Believed to be when primitive dairy-cheese making began. Flax cultivation. China, Quern Grinding Stones.
78-5,000 y a - SE Turkey, Einkorn Wheat grown and domesticated.
9,500 y a - Cyprus, earliest evidence of cat domestication. SE Anatolia, cold-working, annealing, smelting, lost wax casting of Copper.
7500 - 5700 BCE - Anatolia, Catal Hoyuk develops as a spiritual center, found many clay figurines and impressions (feminine, phallic, hunting).
7400 BCE - A monolith ends up submerged in the Straight of Sicily.
7000 BCE - Archaeological evidence for pastoralism in Africa. China: evidence of mead (honey, rice, water fermented) in pottery; evidence of musical instruments. India, first archaeological evidence of Dance, cave art; evidence of dentistry. Armenian Highlands, art depictions of Cymbals. Durum Wheat made thru artificial selection in Europe and Near East. Greece, earliest evidence of grain silos. Turkey, Catal Hoyuk, art depiction of a Slinger.
7000 - 6600 BCE - China, domestication of Soy beans.
7000 - 6000 BCE - Turkey, domestication of Bitter Vetch. (Too bitter for human consumption without being boiled several times, has been found to be great for cattle feed.)
6500-3800 BCE - Ubaid Period (Mesopotamian citystates rise, evidence of specialized workers, evidence of taxation)
6500 BCE - Turkey, evidence of lead smelting at Catal Hoyuk. (Wrapping the dead in textiles, too.) China, archaeological evidence of Silk. Kosovo, oldest Ocarina found in Europe.
8,200 - 7,600 y a - Sea levels rise rapidly. Linked to North American great fresh water lake (Agassiz, Ojibway) sudden draining into Atlantic Ocean. 8,400 y a?
6050 BCE - Moldova, evidence of man extracting salt from a natural spring.
8,000 y a - Western Europe, white skin first appears. Iran: earliest evidence of irrigation; man starts choosing sheep for their wooliness, not just meat and skin (2-3,000 years later, would start wearing wool). Georgia, earliest evidence of wine. Spain, cave painting shows people collecting honey from a wild hive, using a container to hold. China, Buckwheat cultivated (near Tibetan plateau). Earliest evidence of the Ard Plow used. Mediterranean, Broad (Fava) Beans, Broccoli. Portugal: Almendres Cromlech, begins, aligned to equinox and solstice, occupied for 2,000 years, would become largest complex in Iberian peninsula, equal to other large complexes in Europe. Anatolia: Obsidian polished into mirrors. Spelt Wheat appears. First Stone hafted Axes.
6000 - 3500 BC - Mesopotamia (Sumer), Poppy domesticated.
7500 y a - Earth experiences a cold climate period? Lasts for 500 or more years.
7500 y a - Earliest example of chickpeas being used. Poland, archaeological evidence of cheese making. Ukraine, Romania, earliest examples of traps used for hunting.
7,000 y a - Earliest example of Dolmen, single chamber tomb, consists of two stones supporting another on top (table design), found in western Europe, would spread and be common 4000 - 3000 BCE in Europe.
6950 - 6440 y a - Papua New Guinea, cultivation of Taro and Yam.
6,500 y a - Croatia, earliest example of an oven found. Slovenia, dental filling made with beeswax.
5600 BCE - Evidence of The Black Sea Flood, turning the fresh water lake into a salt water sea, rose shorelines and displaced populations (source of flood myths in religions).
5500 BCE - Pakistan, evidence of Cotton found in copper beads. Egypt, earliest Combs found (placing a leaf in the teeth can create a primitive sound instrument).
5500-5000 BCE - Serbia, Copper Smelting.
5200 - 4700 BCE - Iran, earliest evidence of a wheel, for pottery, made of stone or clay.
5000 BCE - Iranian plateau, evidence of Bronze made with naturally occurring arsenic. Tin would replace as the major ingredient (and releasing non-toxic vapors) in the late 3000 BCE period. Iran, evidence of wine found, using sealed containers. China, Hemp domestication (smoking was likely cause for spread, Iron Age would use for production); Rammed Earth construction technique. Egypt, Badarian culture starts farming, used boomerangs. Roundels, circular enclosure often with entrances aligned to solstice, would be constructed in Central Europe (Germany, 120-150 altogether). Siberia, oldest carpet found (likely a funeral gift, from Armenia, featured griffons). Mesopotamia: first use of Stamp Seals for government purposes; Rotary Quern milling stones are introduced. Armenia: possible origin of Apricots. Lake Zurich, cultivation of Pear.
4800 BCE - Egypt, early evidence of peas being grown. Cairn of Barnenez, Brittany, England, begins (burial monument and later bronze age use, considered one of the oldest and largest man made structures).
4700 - 4200 BCE - The town of Solnitstata, considered the oldest known settlement in Europe. Built around a salt deposit.
4500 BCE - Indus Valley, irrigation. Wine production reaches Greece. Carnac Stones, Brittany, France; would become large complex of standing stones, menhirs, domens, tumuli (burial mounds, with passage tombs), large rectangle formed by stone.
4500-4000 BCE - China, Investment Casting develops.
4200 - 4000 BCE - Mesopotamia develops true, easy to spin pottery wheels.
4000 BCE - (Mankind has achieved “Farmer status.”) Egyptians start building big Brick structures; manufacturing Papyrus; Gold artifacts. Earliest examples of Kilns. NE Italy, archaeological find of Appleseeds. Sicily, evidence of wine found. Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Horse domestication begins. Thought to be when Cattle were turned into Ox for Draft Animal purposes. Pontic Language Explosion. [People from north of the Caspian and Black Seas migrated around Eurasia, ancestor of western languages. (shared origins with: milk, horses, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, grain, copper, carts, yoke, weaving, mead; patrilineal clans)]. Earliest examples of Viticulture (wine making). Levant, earliest examples of harvesting Olives; start using grain Silos. Art: Earliest depiction of Shoes, Sandals. China: example of a Loom for Silk production; Ramie (similar to flax, requires chemical processing, not as popular, believed to be used for Egyptian mummy wraps). Persia (Iran), Mung Bean domestication?, Chang (precursor to Harp) found on artwork, made with sheep guts. Mesopotamia: Stamp Seals come into use; Mirrors made of Copper; earliest pipes for moving water. Europe, farming reaches northern regions. Anatolia, Silver production.
4000 - 1000 BCE - Ethiopia, Teff is discovered (can feed people and livestock, building material).
6,000 y a - Earth experiences a cold climate period? (Starting maybe 500 years earlier and ending 500 years later.)
3800 - 3500 BCE - Czech Republic, possible evidence of earliest plowed fields.
5,700 y a - Lolland Island, a blue eyed, dark haired, dark skin woman spits out some Birch Bark gum. Oldest complete human genome extracted. Had Mononucleosis ("kissing disease"). Possible archeological evidence of pit traps used for migrating animal hunting.
3630 BCE - Oldest example of silk fabric found.
5,500 - 4,700 y a - Georgia, tomb found had honey remains on pottery. (This culture could identify Linden, Berry, and Meadow-Flower varieties.)
3500 BCE - City of Uruk: (Mesopotamia) begins outward expansion and influence, later first example of organized warfare (would influence Egyptians to start building pyramids); "Cylinder Seals," a type of noble seal, that can be rolled unto wet clay (would be popular until 1000 BCE). Iraq, Kish Tablet, considered to represent the early transition from pictographic to cuneiform. Mesopotamia, earliest Harps and Lyres found; Gold artifacts. Modern humans settle the western coast of Europe, hunter-gatherers. Egyptians show Cat domestication; Gold Smelting; used a vertical Gnomon as a primitive Sundial? Iran, Beer made from Barley. Armenia, earliest Leather Shoe found. China, Pottery in shape of silkworm indicates earliest example of Sericulture (silk worm production).
3500 - 3350 BCE - Mesopotamia, earliest evidence of wheeled vehicles. Indus Valley civilization uses Stamp Seals with a type of script.
3400 BCE (5,400 years ago) - First metal casting. France, Cow skull showing Trepanation found.
5,400 -5,100 y a - Itzi the Iceman dies in the mountains of Northern Italy. Had a copper axe. Earliest evidence of tattoos. Shoes made from two types of animal skin (bear and deer). Arsenic residue in his hair.
3300 BCE - Egypt, tomb paintings show people Dancing.
3200 BCE - Examples of using symbols to represent real life objects (would go to form written language). Ireland, construction begins on Newgrange, largest passage tomb in Europe, aligned to winter solstice. Egypt, Bead made of Meteoric Iron found.
3100 - 2900 BCE - Jemdet Nasr period, following fall of Uruk, would be known as establishing Cuneiform as a proper language.
3100 BCE - Upper and Lower Egypt unified. Mesopotamia, likely evidence of the earliest Lute type device.
3000 BCE - Onset of Bronze. Mesopotamia, Irrigation; Glass Beads appear (possible side effect of making metal); possible earliest Iron working. Sumer, Medical text found on tablet, believed oldest ever found. Egypt, first record of a Doctor named, Imhotep; Antimony harvested from rock and made into eye makeup; earliest evidence of domestic Donkeys in the south. Dromedary Camels likely domesticated in Somalia at this time. (Camel hair can be harvested for shelter and clothing, outer guard hairs make for water proof coats. Camel milk readily turns into yogurt. To turn into butter requires a clarifying agent and extended process.) Chicken reaches Europe from Asia. England, earliest Stone Circles found. Slovakia, Romania, earliest chainmail found. Sheep chosen for wooly coat, not long hair. China, Clay Bells found. India, River Buffalo domesticated (water buffalo); Jute grown for fiber (burlap). Northern Iran, earliest examples of Trumpets. SE Asia, earliest records of Radish.
2800 BCE - Solid evidence of plowed fields. China, Copper smelting discovered. Sumer, Battle Wagons (4 wheels, likely evolved into a Battle Cart, and later into Chariot).
2700 BCE - Chinese treatise on health. 40 kinds identified.
2650 BCE - Egypt, dental work found.
2630-10 BCE - Egypt, Pyramid of Djoser constructed by Imhotep, considered first.
2600 - 1900 BCE - Indus Valley, Stoneware Pottery (meaning fired at 1000 degrees Celsius), would become a major industry.
2560 BCE - Great Pyramid of Giza completed.
2500 BCE - Evidence of The Amber Road, trade route from the Baltic Sea to Mediterranean Sea. E Iran, Bactrian Camels domesticated. Iraq, "Lyres of Ur," considered world's oldest stringed instruments. Peru, oldest Sling ever found. Egypt, earliest depiction of a Khopesh (sword).
2500 - 2000 BCE - Mali, domestication of Pearl Millet. Turkey, Meteoric Iron dagger.
2400 BCE - Sumer, description of Prostitution and a Brothel-Temple to Fertility Goddess.
2300 BCE - Mesopotamia, Urukagina of Lagash, considered the earliest Law Code. (Widows and orphans exempt from taxes, state pays for funeral expenses, the rich must pay in silver and cannot force the poor against will, checked power of priests, protect from usury, abolished polyandry). Iran, Quince (fruit). China, oldest Gnomon (painted stick that casts a shadow for sundial purpose).
2200 BCE - China, first known tax, using salt.
2200-2000 BCE - Turkey, Iron Smelting.
2100 - 2050 BCE - City of Ur: Earliest written Code of Law discovered. References Butter. (Fines for bodily harm, references murder, robbery, adultery, rape. Two classes of people: free and slave.)
4000 - 3000 y a - Mesopotamia, earliest Scissors (shear, spring type). India, Mung Bean domesticated.
2000 BCE - Murals show horses pulling chariots. Horses become common in western Europe. England, Great Orme Mine started, would become largest copper mine in region (most productive between 1700 - 1400 BCE), used bone and stone tools. China, Bells made out of metal (Bellfounding); domestication of the Swamp Buffalo (water buffalo). Ghana, earliest evidence of Cowpea (black eyed pea). India, Canola/Rapeseed. Egypt, Lupin Beans. Greece, Kale grown. Pakistan, Harappa, earliest sanitation in housing.
1800 BCE - Egypt, medical text on gynecological issues; Safflower for pigment. India, Iron working.
1754 BCE - Code of Hammurabi (recognized Prostitution and gave women protection and inheritance; theorized that a fertility goddess had a temple that offered sex workers).
1700 - 1200 BCE - (Late Bronze Age) 8 societies in Middle East: Aegean, Egyptian, Hittite, Canaanite, Cypriot, Mitanni, Assyrian, Babylonian. Considered a "globalized world system." Next time this would occur is today.
1700 BCE - The "Mari Letters" reference Minoan society, King Hammurabi.
1650 BCE - Greece, earliest chariots found.
1628 BCE - Island of Thera/Santorini experiences huge volcanic eruption, possibly causing a tsunami thru eastern Europe.
1600-1500 BCE - Greece, Helmet formed of boar tusks found.
1500 BCE - Modern Trumpet design found in eastern Mediterranean. India, Pigeon Pea domesticated. Egypt, Mercury found in tombs; archaeologists find earliest Sundials found. China, Water Clocks.
1400 BCE - Syria, Hurrian Songs, cuneiform music tablet in Ugarit. Greece, oldest body armor found, made of bronze, Dendra Panoply. China, Meteoric Iron axeheads. Art representation of Scale Mail in Egypt. Art: representation of Shields.
1350 BCE - Turkey, Hittites chronicle Egyptian prisoners of war bringing "the plague.”
1300 BCE - Uluburun Shipwreck, off coast of Turkey, had 300 sixty pound copper ingots (10 tons), 1 ton of tin, and tin objects and ingots of colored glass (blue, rose, brown). From Cypress/Minoa.
1300? - 900? BCE - Eastern Mediterranean experiences a 300? year drought. (Could also be: Cypress 1200- 850. Syria 1250-1187. Galilee 1250-1100)
1279 BCE - Battle of Qadesh (Egypt vs Hittites).
1200 BCE (3,200 years ago) - Onset of Iron smelting. Earliest Camel saddles appear. Last appearance of Megaliths. India, earliest evidence of Firewalking.
1200 BCE - Eastern Mediterranean civilization collapse. Drought in Greece. Earthquake series.
1188-1177 BCE - Egypt suffers invasions from "The Sea People."
1185 BCE - Syria, Ugarit Letter, Famine.
1140? BCE - Ramses 6th, mummy found to have small pox. No record of people dying from small pox.
1100 BCE - Phoenicians establish nation. Europe, Iron Age.
1100? BCE - Earth experiences a cold temperature period?
1100-750 BCE - Egypt, Iron Smelting.
1070 BCE - Egyptian mummy found with Silk in hair, earliest evidence of Silk Road.
1000 BCE - Early Cuneiform script (late stages, still pictograph in nature). Bactria, Barbat (primitive lute). Egypt, Kenaf is grown for fibers, leaves can be eaten by animals and humans (similar to Jute and Hemp; rope, rough fabric, sails). Mediterranean, Cabbage domesticated. China, Iron Age.
930 BCE - Camel bones found in Arabian peninsula. Jordan, earliest Bloomery for Iron working found.
800 - 600 BCE - Ethiopia, Sorghum Wheat begins to be harvested.
800 BCE - Considered the beginning of Ancient Greece, after the Mycenae Civilization. China, Bloomeries used.
700-500 BCE - The Illiad composed.
700 BCE - Turkey, first Coins in Lydia. Assyria, first equipment recognized as a Saddle for a Horse.
600 BCE - Earliest example of a Steel Sword.
600-400 BCE - Ancient Greece rise of scientific inquiry and philosophy
550 BCE - The Illiad written down.
500 BCE - Camels used in warfare. Persians use kettle drums for military maneuvers, frighten enemies. Greece, Grape Syrup, early form of sweetener and preservative. Blackberries consumed around Europe. Spain, Disk Quern developed.
400 BCE - The "Celts/Gaeil" settle Ireland.
396 BCE - Olympics, horn blowing competitions.
314 BCE - China, first mention of Sweet Orange.
298 BCE - Foot powered Loom.
200 BCE - China starts making paper.
100 CE - Sorghum Wheat domesticated. Mediterranean, Cauliflower.
400 CE - Bellfounding comes to Europe.
800 CE - Start of most recent Interglacial peak period.
1200 CE (800 years ago) - First Cannon foundry. Europe, first Paper mills.
1250 - 1850 CE - Earth experiences a small Ice Age.
1500 CE - Concept of Religion becomes clearly defined.
1650 CE - Pendulum Clock.
1750 CE - France, Strawberry grown in garden. Barbados, Grapefruit.
1760 CE - Bat guano begins showing increased levels of lead, indicating the Industrial Revolution.
1880 CE (140 years ago), Carnegie steel erects skyscrapers.
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2020.09.22 19:53 Ephezius A Comprehensive (?) Guide to Universalism Apologetics

In response to a request from u/jatecaom, I have listed my thoughts around how I defend my Universalist viewpoints with my Christian brothers and sisters who disagree with me. I thought I’d post it here instead of in the original post, in case anyone else finds this valuable.
I apologize upfront for the length of this post, but I wanted to be as comprehensive as possible. To help you read through it all, I have broken this out into sections. Just find the section you need and go for it. Also, I'm certainly not the authority on this topic, so add something if I have any glaring omissions!
1.) Approach, intentionality, and being selectively definitive
2.) Assumptions
3.) Apologetics is Chess
4.) Going on the offensive
a. Philosophy and Reason
b. Verses
5.) Defend yourself!
a. Common pushback
b. Verses that seem to contradict
6.) Supporting verses
This probably goes without saying, but I think the most important thing here is to approach anyone with an attitude of love. Imagine if they actually start to believe what you’re saying. The amount of hope they will experience is immeasurable, as you probably know if you’re reading this. Just knowing that everything really will be alright in the end is the truest “good news” we can share. I believe this message can be incredibly edifying to the church, so my encouragement to you is to shy away from an, “I am right and you are wrong” conversation. Everyone innately believes that they are right; seldom few are able to have an open heart to consider a different belief system. Only the Holy Spirit can prepare a heart for a change of this magnitude, as most Christians haven’t even heard of Christian Universalism.
I’d also add that you need to be strong in your faith before you engage in apologetics. If you are easily swayed, or if you don’t yet know why you believe Universalism, then it’s probably best to walk away from the conversation.
Finally, be okay with saying “I don’t know.” None of us – regardless of belief system – every have all the answers. Only be definitive when you know in your heart that something is true. If someone asks you if Judas is in Hell and you aren’t sure… say that you aren’t sure. That’s okay. Only say something if you can prove it through reason or text.
In today’s polarizing environment, it’s important to remember that having differing opinions is a wonderful thing. It can be fun to engage in these debates! As long as you respect people for what they believe and that they have a right to believe it, they will probably reciprocate.
Okay… enough preamble. Let’s get into it!
Let me start by putting out the assumptions I’m operating under. This topic is apologetics vs. witnessing to someone who may be an atheist, agnostic, or from another religion, so I am assuming that the audience to whom we are defending our faith is Christian.
Second, I assume that they have some level of believing in the authority of scripture, though I do have several reason-based arguments if they do not.
Next, I’m operating under the assumption that the Bible is infallible, but not necessarily literal. A lot of people immediately conclude that you don’t believe in the authority of the scripture if you believe in Universalism. That’s just not true.
Finally, my personal opinions on some specific aspects of Universalism are likely different from others on this channel. I’m sure you’ll disagree with some of my responses, but hopefully some of this will help.
When you’ve had enough of these debates, you come to realize that there is always a pattern. You must be ready in and out of season, as it were (II Tim 4:2) – you never know when one of these topics will come up.
I’ve found most often that when you pronounce your faith in Universalism, the audience tends to bombard you with questions about this verse and that verse. You’ll find yourself very quickly in a defensive posture. I follow a few rules:
1.) I never bring it up unless I’m asked
2.) I always let them ask the first question, which is usually “why do you believe this?”
3.) I typically answer with a “why do you not believe in Universalism?”
4.) If asked earnestly, they will enumerate all of the issues you’re going to have to address. This is your roadmap
5.) I never assume I’m going to convince anyone. You can give the best, most eloquent defense of your position and – at best – you’ll give someone pause
6.) Always be thinking 3-4 questions in advance. If they are on a certain line of questioning, then you can probably anticipate what’s coming next. Be ready to give them some thought-provoking questions of your own
7.) Generally, I usually answer a question with another question
Philosophy and Reason
As I said in a previous response, I typically open with this logic:
Only two of the following three statements can be true:
1.) God is Love 2.) God is omnipotent 3.) Some people go to Hell for eternal torment
So in other words, if people will end up in hell, that means that He is either not Love or He does not have the ability to save all. Anyone with a slight belief in the Bible will know that it specifically declares that God is Love and that He is all powerful.
Beyond that, I like to start with philosophical questions:
1.) How can you reconcile the statement “God is Love” with “eternal torment”? Especially for benign individuals like American Indians living in 1,000 AD who never heard of Christ?
Why would God resurrect unbelievers to everlasting torment if He could just let them ‘sleep’?
Why would God create someone when He knew they were destined for eternal torment? Even if it’s their choice, wouldn’t a loving God see that non-creation is a better alternative?
2.) If through the sin of Adam – a created being – all men were doomed to eternal torment, how is the sacrifice of Christ – God himself – not enough to save everyone?
3.) How can we be happy in heaven knowing that those we love – and those God still loves – are being tormented beyond comprehension during every moment for the rest of all eternity? God did say that He will “wipe away our tears” (Rev. 21:4).
4.) Is God not powerful enough to stop eternal torment? If He is powerful enough, does He just not want to? Is Satan God’s equal in this matter?
5.) What do you do with the term “all” in the litany of verses in the Bible that explicitly say all will be saved? If you look to the original languages ‘all’ actually means ‘all’. In fact, the term ‘the many’ means ‘all’ as well (Matt. 20:28  I Tim. 2:6, Rom. 5:18).
6.) If man is helpless to save himself (Rom. 5:6), dead in sin (Eph. 2:1), and can’t understand spiritual things in the first place (I Cor. 2:14), then faith is a gift from God and not of man (Eph. 2:8-9, Phil. 1:29). How then is eternal torment fair? Is God a God of fairness?
7.) Did Jesus do all of the work of salvation, or did He leave us to do some of it? In other words, how are we saved?
Is it belief alone (Eph. 2:8-9)? Is it belief and confession (Rom. 10:9)? Do we have to apologize for our sins (Mark 1:15)? Must we be baptized as well (Mark 16:16)? Do we have to be fruitful (Matt. 7:16)? Do we have to make Jesus our Lord? It’s either works or it’s not. Baptism is a work. Confession is a work. Belief is a response (see the last question), but everything else is effort. The point: how do you reconcile faith and works?
8.) Here on Earth, if someone can save a person from death, but they choose not to, they go to jail for negligent homicide. Why do we hold people to a higher standard than God?
Most of these are questions we asked as a child, but we repress them and lean instead on the traditional beliefs of our ancestors. It’s time to ask those questions again!
There are more verses than I could possibly list here, so I added most of them to the last section. Here are some great ones with which to challenge your audience. There are astounding implications to most of these, but I’ll trust in the intelligence of my reader and limit my exposition.
I Timothy 4:10 – “In fact, we labor and strive for this, because we have put our hope in the living God, who is the Savior of everyone, especially of those who believe.”
Romans 11:32 – “For God has imprisoned all in disobedience, so that He may have mercy on all.”
I Corinthians 3:13-15 – “13 …each one’s work will become obvious, for the day will disclose it, because it will be revealed by fire; the fire will test the quality of each one’s work. 14 If anyone’s work that he has built survives, he will receive a reward. 15 If anyone’s work is burned up, it will be lost, but he will be saved; yet it will be like an escape through fire.”
Romans 17:17-20 – “17Since by the one man’s trespass, death reigned through that one man, how much more will those who receive the overflow of grace and the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man, Jesus Christ. 18 So then, as through one trespass there is condemnation for everyone, so also through one righteous act there is life-giving justification for everyone. 19 For just as through one man’s disobedience the many were made sinners, so also through the one man’s obedience the many will be made righteous. 20 The law came along to multiply the trespass. But where sin multiplied, grace multiplied even more.”
Romans 5:15 – “But the gift is not like the trespass. For if by the one man’s trespass the many died, how much more have the grace of God and the gift overflowed to the many by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ.” John 12:32 – “32 As for Me, if I am lifted up from the earth I will draw all people to Myself.” Pair this with John 6:44 – “No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him, and I will raise him up on the last day.” Colossians 1:20 – “…and through Him to reconcile everything to Himself by making peace through the blood of His cross—whether things on earth or things in heaven.”
In Luke 23:34, Jesus said of His murderers, “Father, forgive them, because they do not know what they are doing.” Did God answer His Son’s prayer? Hint: John 12:49 – “For I have not spoken on My own, but the Father Himself who sent Me has given Me a command as to what I should say and what I should speak.”
Romans 11:25-26, 30-32 – “25 So that you will not be conceited, brothers, I do not want you to be unaware of this mystery: A partial hardening has come to Israel until the full number of the Gentiles has come in. 26 And in this way all Israel will be saved…” “30 As you once disobeyed God, but now have received mercy through their disobedience, 31 so they too have now disobeyed, resulting in mercy to you, so that they also now may receive mercy. 32 For God has imprisoned all in disobedience, so that He may have mercy on all.”
This won’t be an exhaustive list of verses that people bring up, but I thought I’d give some common questions and answers I have come across. Again, I’ll start with the reason-based questions and go on to verses.
Common Responses
*1.) What about belief? *
A: Where in the Bible does it say that belief cannot happen after death? Show me that verse. You can’t because there is no such verse. Tradition says that this life is our only opportunity to believe; the Bible does not. (Philippians 2:8-11, Romans 14:11, Rev 5:13, Isa 45:23)
As a side note, I’m actually getting to the point where I’m seeing that belief is merely a response vs. a choice. I don’t believe it’s a prerequisite to salvation, but rather a result of it. That’s probably a bit too deep for the purposes of this line of reasoning, though.
2.) What about God’s justice?
A: I Corinthians 3:13-15 says that there will be great loss for many. There will be a great judgement and all of us will be tested and salted with fire (Mark 9:49). But read the verse in I Cor – none of this means loss of salvation! I would refer you to what judgment and fire mean virtually everywhere in the Bible. The theme of fire is an oft-used metaphor in the text and it is always with a view to purification and completion. We are judged with a view to purification.
Think about how Saul became Paul. He was the test case for what Christ will do for us! Paul was shown Christ and then he believed. If God gave the worst of the sinners (I Tim 1:15) this opportunity, don’t you think it’s unfair if even one person who ever lived didn’t have the same chance?
3.) If we preach this, then people will sin even more. What do they have to lose?
A: Paul ran into this exact issue with many of his churches (Romans 6:15). We need to remember that true Christianity is not about behavior modification; it’s about a relationship with God. What happens when someone shows you true love? Do you take advantage of it? Maybe… but that says more about you than that person. If you are truly loved and cared for by someone, then you want to be better for them. The closer we get to Christ, the more we emulate him. Otherwise, Christianity is just a fear-based system of beliefs. Our God has not given us a spirit of fear (2 Tim 1:7).
People who believe that you can’t lose your salvation have contended with this for centuries.
4.) What about hell?
A: refer to #2. Hell is never mentioned in the Old Testament (Hades refers to the unseen realm; see verse section below for Tartarus). In the New Testament, our translation of the word Hell is actually the word Gehenna (with a couple of exceptions). Gehenna was a trash heap/dump in Jerusalem and was used as a metaphor for the coming judgement in AD 70. It has nothing to do with eternal life.
Matt 23:36 - Truly I say to you, all these things will come upon this generation
Jesus goes as far as literally telling people that most of them will be alive when this stuff comes to past.
Read about AD 70 and read Josephus’ historical accounts of the events. You’ll be amazed at how many things were prophesied.
See below for a more in-depth explanation.
5.) Why does no one else believe in Universalism? A: In the words of u/CmndrCuddj,
“…people like Gregory of Nyssa, Clement of Alexandria, Origen Adamantius; All are within the first 300 years, all spoke native Greek(new testament was written in Greek) and all universalists. Then I turn to St. Augustine who spoke Latin, and confessed to not knowing Greek. Who’s word is more trustworthy?”
6.) God would not allow so many to believe the wrong thing A: On the contrary, God has given us great freedom to believe whatever we want. Look no further than Jesus’ contemporaries. They all believed that there would be a warrior-like savior. They thought the Messiah would come and defeat all of their enemies (e.g., Rome, etc.). They looked for a lion and instead they found the Lamb.
Specific Verses
This isn’t exhaustive, but here are the most common ones I hear. If you don’t want to read through these, you can skip to Section 6.
1.) Matthew 5:22 - …anyone who says, 'You fool!' will be in danger of the fire of hell.
This verse is used to demonstrate that Jesus mentions Hell in the first place and thereby showing that people are destined for it. The word for Hell here is Gahenna.
Gahenna is rooted in an Old Testament locale. It was a valley southwest of Jerusalem (you can see a picture of it right now on Google) and it belonged to a man named Hinnom; it has a very long history and all of it is bad. In 2 Chron. 28, King Ahaz burnt his children there (as did King Manasseh in 2 Chron. 33:6). In Jer. 7 and 19, Jeremiah prophesied of calamity and destruction coming upon the Jews there. From these verses, you will plainly see that Gahenna (a.k.a. the Valley of Hinnom, until God renamed it in Jer. 7:32) came to mean a place of burning, a valley of slaughter, and a place of fiery judgment. The Jews so hated this place that they cast all manner of refuse, deceased animals, and executed criminals into it after King Josiah came on the scene; it became a trash heap. That trash heap was always on fire, with worms, decomposition, the whole bit. A lot of Christians take this as symbolism for eternal punishment, but it’s symbolic of something else entirely: 70 A.D.
You can look at all of the uses of Gahenna in the Bible and see that none of these passages say that anyone of our day can go to ‘hell’. None of them associate hell with Satan. None of them say that Satan’s domain is hell. They speak of men being killed and destroyed in Gahenna, but none of them speak of them being tormented there. (You can see it for yourself. Here are all the mentions of Gahenna: Matt. 5:21-22, 29-30; 10:28; Luke 12:4-5; Matt. 18:9 and Mark 9:43-45; Matt. 23:15, 33; James 3:6).
So the use of Gahenna here is a fact. The history and understanding of what Gahenna was is a fact. The events of 70 A.D. are factual. But the interpretation of any verse (including Matt. 5:22) is up to the reader or teacher. Tradition dating back to the middle ages tells us that Gahenna is a metaphor for a place of eternal punishment, but I come down on the side of most of the early church fathers who interpreted this passage literally (the O.G.s like Irenaeus, Melito, Andreas, Tertullian, Athanasius, Chrysostom, etc.).
2.) Matthew 20:28 – “…just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.” Didn't Jesus pay a ransom to Satan for us?
The ransom was paid to Sin and Death itself. Let’s say that today you make chocolate chip cookies. What would happen if you accidentally dropped a cup of white vinegar into the batter while your mixer stirred it in immediately? The chemical nature of the dough would change. Where you once had something delicious, you would end up with something gross. The key to all of this is to understand what sin really is: Sin is not just a moral failing or an offense to the divine honor… sin is the introduction of corruption and demonic slavery into man’s entire being in the cosmos (Gen. 6:5, 12; II Peter 2:19; Psalm 14:1; Hosea 9:9; Eph. 4:22; Isa. 64:6; Romans 3:9-18… especially 3:10). And we know also that the wages of sin is death (Romans 6:23). Death does not affect just man’s body, but his entire being. Apart from Christ, death is eternal and hopeless. Death is supreme separation from God (Isaiah 38:18).
The work of salvation is vastly more than the satisfaction of God’s offended honor. It addresses every aspect of man’s separation from God. From the first chapter of Genesis, God’s goal in our creation was the full and inexpressibly rich union of man with God. Adam and Eve were prototypes of that life (to a lesser extent than what we will have). They did not start as sinners, but as sharers in the Life of God. This reflects the goal of redemption, which is man’s participation in the divine nature... in other words, our participation in the Life of God. But alas, we were separated from God.
We are separated from God in three ways: through our nature (i.e., flesh), through sin, and through death (Rom. 6:21, 23; 8:2, 6, 38). This separation was overcome in three ways –
a. Through the Son’s Incarnation, whereby He opened a path for man’s return to union with God (Isaiah 7:14; 9:1-2,6-7;11:1-5); b. His sacrificial death on the Cross, by which He vanquished the reign of sin (Isaiah 50:4-9;52:13-15;53:1-12) – this was the ransom paid; c. And His Resurrection from the dead, by which He delivered us from that final enemy (Isaiah 56:6-8; 59:15-20; 60:1-22; 61:1-3; 62:1-5; 63:1-6).
Man’s repentance from sin is not sufficient to restore him to a relationship with God because sin is not merely a moral offense. Sin isn’t a spiritual state that can be altered by a spiritual adjustment and it’s not the sort of affront that’s remedied by an apology. According to the Bible, the state of sin is bondage to death and corruption. Death and corruption are not punishments imposed on sin -- they are a part of sin itself. They are the embodiment of sin (Romans 5:21). To deal with sin, it was necessary to deal with death (Luke 3:4-6, Heb. 2:14-16, I Cor. 15:42, 49).
Now back to the first question: from what did Christ save us? You might think He saved us from eternal torment and suffering in Hell, but I hope you can see that He did so much more than that. He restored (and then some) our “chemical structure” to become like Him and thereby able to share in His life, in His fellowship, in His righteousness, Peace, and Joy in the Holy Spirit! He saved us from eternal separation from Him by eternal death.
3.) Luke 16:19-31 – v.23 – In Hades, where he was in torment… v.24 I am in agony in this fire… v.26 – a great chasm has been set in place… v.28 warn them, so that they will not come to this place of torment
You can do a Google search to find that this parable was actually already a well-known Egyptian folk-tale about Si-Osiris when Jesus told it (Howard Marshall’s The Gospel of Luke, p. 634, Josephus’ A Discourse to Greeks Concerning Hades). In other words, the Pharisees knew this story, yet Jesus puts his own creative genius and spin behind a well-known fable to call out the Pharisees. Before we get to that, here are the biblical proofs of how we know for sure that it’s a parable:
a.) Jesus the Messiah never accuses the rich man of any sin. He is simply portrayed as a wealthy man who lived the good life. b.) Furthermore, Lazarus is never proclaimed to be a righteous man. He is just one who had the misfortune to be poor and unable to care for himself. c.) If this story is literal, then the logical implication is that all the rich are destined to burn in hell, while all the homeless and destitute will be saved. d.) Abraham’s bosom is not heaven (Heb. 11:8-10, 16… 16 being the key verse) e.) People in hell can’t talk to those in heaven (Isa. 65:17) f.) People are rewarded at Christ’s second coming, not at death (Revelation 22:12) g.) “The lost are punished in hell at the end of the world, not when they die (Matthew 13:40–42). Luke 16:31, the last verse of the story, contains a spiritual lesson, showing that the story is actually a parable. Parables cannot be taken literally. If we took parables literally, then we must believe that trees talk! (See this parable in Judges 9:8–15).”
In Romans 11:1 Paul rhetorically asks if God has cast away His people, Israel. He answers his own question emphatically by saying "Certainly not!" He tells us that God has not cast away Israel. Paul writes that there is currently a remnant of Israel, analogous to the seven thousand reserved to God in Elijah's time (I Kings 19:18), that God has elected by grace. The rest God hardened, that the Gentiles might also be included in salvation through grace. He gives the resolution of the situation in verse 26.
Read Romans 11:25
The same God that blinded Israel unto disobedience will have mercy on all that have been rebellious due to that blindness. To quote Paul once again, "Oh, the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are His judgments and unfathomable His ways!" Praised be the Eternal Creator of all things!
4.) Revelation 20:13-15 - 13 Then the sea gave up its dead, and Death and Hades gave up their dead; all were judged according to their works. 14 Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire. 15 And anyone not found written in the book of life was thrown into the lake of fire.
II Peter 2:17 – “These people are springs without water, mists driven by a whirlwind. The gloom of darkness has been reserved for them.”
Jude 1:13 – “wild waves of the sea, foaming up their shameful deeds; wandering stars for whom the blackness of darkness is reserved forever!”
Daniel 12:2 – “Many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake, some to eternal life, and some to shame and eternal contempt.”
This is the big one! There are many, many more verses like this and they all have one or both of the following in common:
a.) Fiery Imagery (i.e., Lake of Fire) or Darkness (i.e., the Second Death)
b.) Phrases like ‘Eternal Torment’ or ‘Eternal Contempt’ But there are a couple of common motifs that will unify these into one answer. But I want to start with a singular verse: Revelation 20:13-15. Let’s break it down verse by verse.
v.13 - Then the sea gave up its dead, and Death and Hades gave up their dead; all were judged according to their works. Death and Hades hand over the dead to the One on the great white throne (v. 11), Christ Himself. Christ has conquered Death and Hell and these last enemies have been placed under His feet (I Cor. 15:25).
v.14 - Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire. What goes into the Lake of Fire? Death and Hades. Hell and Death, as we know it, are destroyed.
v.15a - And anyone not found written in the book of life… Let’s circle back to this after the second part of the verse.
v. 15b - …was thrown into the lake of fire. So wait a minute… Christ just claimed the dead back from the clutches of Death and Hell just to judge them and throw them into the Lake of Fire to be forever tormented? How does that reconcile with John 10:10 – “The thief cometh not, but that he may steal, and kill, and destroy: I came that they may have life, and may have [it] abundantly.” Jesus is a life-giver and redeemer, not a destroyer.
The ‘second death' and the ‘lake of fire ' is about finally putting to death of all creaturely identities in order to bring them into conformity with the identity of the Christ, the Lamb, Who is the Image of God (2 Cor. 4:4; Col. 1:15).
Now let’s circle back to the first part of this verse:
v.15a - And anyone not found written in the book of life… Let me set the stage here: recall Abram becoming Abraham for me; Jacob became Israel; Saul became Paul; Serai became Sarah; Simon became Peter… and the list goes on. Now read 2 Cor. 3:17 – “So then, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; what is old has passed away--look, what is new has come!”
Paul, Israel, and Abraham with their God-given names were all symbolic of that new creation being lived in time. In Romans 7:20 Paul says, “Now if I do what I do not want, I am no longer the one doing it, but it is the sin that lives in me.” So while some people theorize that Jesus’ name is the only name in the book of life and, by proxy, all of our names are in there…, others theorize that Death and Hades are the only things thrown in. While both may end up being true, that’s not the ultimate point I’m making here: throughout scripture, we are told that our old sin natures will “burn up” when thrown in so that sin might be done away with once and for all (I Cor. 15:57, Romans 6:6, Colossians 3:9, Romans 8:8, Ecclesiastes 7:20, 1 John 1:8). And guess what?! We will be given a new name:
Revelation 2:17 – “I will also give him a white stone, and on the stone a new name is inscribed that no one knows except the one who receives it.”
See also Isa. 56:5, Isa. 62:2, Isa. 65:15, and Rev 3:12. That’s what is in the Book of Life, meaning our old names (i.e., natures) are not. Believers in time have already been crucified with Christ, so they are safe from that judgement (Rev 2:11). So we know that every knee bows and every tongue confesses and with that belief, we’re given a new name – we are new creations (II Cor. 5:17). The "old man" will not enter through the ever-open gates of the New Jerusalem -- his "inheritance" is in the lake of fire. BUT THE PERSON OVER WHOM THE OLD MAN ONCE RULED, THE PERSON MADE IN THE IMAGE OF GOD, WILL BE SAVED (see Ephesians 4:22-24 and especially Colossians 3:9-10). And then God will be All in All (I Cor. 15:28).
Once they have been purified in the lake of fire, even the kings of the earth, those most vile of all men who had stood with the beast and the false prophet (Rev 19:19), will be free to enter the New Jerusalem through gates that never close and never shut anyone out (Rev. 21:24-26). It says it right there in Revelation.
So there is judgment. There are and people will experience unfathomable loss. There will be judgment for unbelievers (John 20:29 – “Blessed are those who believe without seeing Me.”). Where you see retributive judgement, however, I see restorative judgement. Remember, that a running theme in the Bible – especially the Old Testament – is fire as a means of purification. This is overwhelmingly the case as you can see in many, many verses (Zech. 13:9, I Peter 1:7, Isa. 48:10, Job 23:10, Prov. 17:3, Mal. 3:3, Heb. 12:29, etc.). How do we know that this is refiner’s fire and not tormenting fire? For one thing, I Corinthians confirms it for us:
1 Cor. 3:13-15 – “Each one’s work will be revealed. For the Day will declare it, because it will be revealed by fire, and the fire will test what sort of work each has done. If anyone’s work which he has built on the foundation endures, he will receive a reward. If anyone’s work is burned, he will suffer loss. But he himself will be saved, still going through the fire.”
Paul seems to be applying this universal truth to the particular group of men who are communicators of the Bible in (1 Corinthians 3:10-15). Blessed indeed are the victors who are not only not thrown into the lake of fire to experience loss but those who are not even hurt by the second death (Rev 2:11). Blessed are those who believe without seeing (John 20:29). The Lord himself is the fire of judgment that transforms us, conforming us to his glorified body (Rom 8:29; Phil. 3:21).
So now, let’s talk about the other verses here. The German theologian Wolfhart Pannenberg puts it best:
“The judgment that is put in Christ's hands is no longer destruction but a fire purging and cleansing. What it effects is the change to which Paul refers in 1 Cor. 15:50, the transforming of the mortal into immortality. Here is the solution to the apparent contradiction between the statements in 2 Cor. 5:10 and 1 Cor. 15:50: the transformation takes place by the fire of judgment. It involves the completing of penitence, but only as a moment in integration into the new life in fellowship with Jesus Christ. Thus the fire of judgment is purifying not destructive, fire.”
Daniel 12:2 - "Many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, but others to shame and everlasting contempt.”
In Jude 1:13, “forever” and “everlasting” is from the Greek word aiōna, which is the root word of – you guessed it – aionios. It means age-abiding, not forever and ever – it’s where we get the word ‘eon’. Again, do not take my word for it – it’s there for you to find in lexicons. Aionios only has implications of eternity when it describes something of God Himself. Aidios is the word used for 'absolute eternity' or for 'absolutely eternal', describing for instance "God's eternal (aidios) power and nature" in Romans 1:20 and in Jude 1:6 to describe the eternal power of God that keeps.
As for Daniel 12:2, there is plenty of evidence that this also points to 70 A.D. due to the language throughout chapter 11 and the parallels it has with several verses in Revelation. I’m pretty convinced of it myself and I could make that case here with another page of explanation, but let’s just say for the sake of argument that this verse is speaking eschatologically (P.S. - If you want to read about why it probably belongs in 70 A.D., I’ve got several books that go through all of Daniel + Revelation + Matthew 24, but Matthew 24 Fulfilled by John Bray is the best). Even if that is true, 12:2 uses the same word in the Septuagint translation (referred to as the LXX, it is the Greek translation of the Old Testament) and Jesus quotes it often, verbatim. Aionios is used here as well, but even the Hebrew word, owlam, often means the same thing (as in Jonah 2 when it’s used to refer to Jonah being in the belly of the whale for an age, or a set amount of time).
So what’s the conclusion? When every eye sees Him there will certainly be many who will be struck with grief at the sight of the Crucified Savior-especially those who pierced Him! But it will be God "striking in order to heal.” It will be a sorrow in the hands of God who is Love, producing repentance that does not coerce free will, leading to an irrevocable salvation, a salvation that no one will ever regret. The painful grief through an epistle of Paul led some people in Corinth to a repentance that led to salvation. This will happen on a larger scale when all flesh sees the salvation of the Lord (Isaiah 40:5; Luke 3:6; Isaiah 45:22), when every eye sees (Zechariah 12:10 Rev 1:7) the Son of Man who came with the clouds (Daniel 7:13-14, 27). Why, Saul of Tarsus on the Road to Damascus is a perfect example of what will happen to unbelievers on that day.
This certainly isn’t all of the verses that supports our universalistic beliefs, but if you are still interested, here are several more (including some you’ve seen above) that further support the idea that Christ saved all.
Genesis 12:3 --- All peoples on earth will be blessed through Abraham.
Genesis 22:18 --- All nations on earth will be blessed through Abraham’s offspring.
Psalms 22:27 --- All the ends of the earth and all the families of the nations will acknowledge God.
Psalms 65:2 --- All men will come to God.
Psalms 86:9 --- All nations will worship and glorify God.
Psalms 103:8-9 --- God is compassionate, will not always accuse and will not be angry forever.
Psalms 145:9-10 --- The Lord has compassion on all His creation and all He has made will praise Him.
Psalms 145:13 --- The Lord loves all His creation.
Psalms 145:14 --- The Lord upholds all who fall.
Isaiah 25:6-8 --- God will prepare a feast for all people, He will destroy the shroud that enfolds all peoples, the sheet that covers up all nations. He will eliminate death, wipe away the tears from all faces and remove the disgrace of his people from all the earth.
Isaiah 45:22-23 --- God has sworn an oath that every knee will bow before Him and every tongue will swear by Him.
Isaiah 49:6 --- God’s salvation will be brought to the ends of the earth.
Isaiah 54:8 --- Although God will hide His face in a surge of anger, He will also have compassion with everlasting kindness.
Isaiah 57:16-18 --- God’s anger is not permanent. Although He punishes man, He will heal, guide and restore comfort to him.
Jeremiah 31:33-34 --- All men will know God, from the greatest to the least.
Lamentations 3:31-33 --- The Lord does not cast off forever. Although He brings grief, he will also be compassionate.
Ezekiah 18:21 --- God does not any pleasure in the death of the wicked. Rather, He is pleased when they repent.
Micah 7:18 --- God does not stay angry forever.
Matthew 18:13 --- Like the man who owes a hundred sheep and is not willing to lose even one, God is not willing that any one be lost.
Luke 2:10 --- The birth of Jesus is good news for all the people.
Luke 3: 5, 6 --- John the Baptist quotes Isaiah’s words that all mankind will see God’s salvation.
John 1:29 --- Jesus is the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world.
John 3:35 --- God sent Jesus to save the world.
John 4:42 --- God has committed all things to Christ.
John 5:25 --- Even the dead will hear the sound of Christ and all who hear will live.
John 6:37 --- Everything that God has given to Christ will come to him.
John 12:32 --- When Jesus is lifted up from the earth, he will draw all men to himself.
John 12:47 --- Jesus came to save the world.
John 17:2 --- God granted Christ authority over all people so that Christ may give eternal life to all that God has given him.
Acts 3:20-21 --- Jesus must remain in heaven until the time comes for God to restore everything.
Romans 3:3-4 --- The unbelief of some will not nullify God’s faithfulness.
Romans 5:18 --- The act of obedience of one man (Jesus) will bring life for all men.
Romans 8:19-21 --- Creation itself will be liberated and brought into the glorious freedom of the children of God.
Romans 8:38-39 --- Nothing can separate us from the love of God that is in Christ.
Romans 11:32 --- God made all people imprisoned by disobedience so that he may have mercy on them all.
1 Corinthians 15:22-28 --- All will be made alive in Christ, but each in his own turn and ultimately Christ will subdue all his enemies, eliminate death and God will be all in all.
2 Corinthians 5:15 --- Christ died for all.
2 Corinthians 5:19 --- Through Christ, God was reconciling the world to Himself.
Ephesians 1:11 --- God will bring all things under heaven and on earth under Christ.
Ephesians 4:10 --- Christ ascended higher then all the heavens to fill the whole universe.
Philippians. 2:9-11 --- Every tongue will confess that Jesus is Lord (In 1 Corinthians 12:3, Paul writes that no one can say “Jesus is Lord” except by the Holy Spirit)
Colossians 1: 19-20 --- God was pleased to reconcile to Himself, all things on earth and in heaven through the blood of Christ.
1 Timothy 2:4-6 --- God wants all men to be saved and to know the truth. Can God’s desire be thwarted?
1 Timothy 4:10 --- God is the Saviour of all men, especially (not exclusively) those who believe.
Titus 2:11-12 --- God’s grace, which brings salvation has appeared to all men.
Hebrews 2:9 --- Jesus tasted death for everyone.
1 John 2:2 --- Christ is the atoning sacrifice of the sins of the whole world.
1 John 3:8 --- Christ appeared to destroy the devil’s works. The doctrine of eternal damnation denies the victory of Christ!
1 John 4:14 --- Christ is the Saviour of the world.
Revelations 5:13 --- Every creature in heaven, on earth, under the earth, and on the sea will sing praises to him who sits on the throne and to the Lamb (Christ).
Revelations 21:4-5 --- God will dwell with men and he will wipe every tear from their eyes, death, mourning, crying, pain and the old order of things will pass and everything will be made new.
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2020.09.22 18:41 MotionLawImmigration Amicus Brief Against Increase in Naturalization Fee Motion Law Immigration

Amicus Brief Against Increase in Naturalization Fee Motion Law Immigration

Increase in immigration application fees
The sudden arrival of the global Coronavirus pandemic took governments around the world by surprise and definitely affected multiple sectors of the US society.
One of the sectors most affected by the health crisis is the immigration sector, which was paused almost completely for more than two months.
However, now that services are gradually returning to normal, we can still witness the aftermath of the massive COVID-19 outbreak.
For instance, the US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), which is the entity in charge of responding to immigration applications nationwide, had to close its offices and cancel face-to-face services to the public for more than two months.
Thus, because this federal agency’s income is almost entirely dependent on immigration application fees, it suffered a devastating downturn in revenue that threatened the entire immigration system of the country.
In fact, the USCIS planned to suspend 70% of its employees by the end of August, but the resumption of immigration services resulted in positive revenue for the entity.
Nowadays, the USCIS does not plan to suspend such a large portion of its employees, but it did announce a substantial increase in most immigration applications as of October 2, 2020, including naturalization ceremonies.
Motion Law keeps you up to date with the latest immigration news.

Increasing the fee for naturalization ceremonies

Naturalization ceremonies are the last step for immigrants to permanently become US citizens and hold an American passport.
The USCIS sponsors these ceremonies, which also initially receives the applications for a thorough review before approving them.
Within the USCIS fee increase, the application for naturalization ceremonies increased from $725 to $1,200, which represents a 60% increase.
As expected, due to the substantial increase in immigration applications, dozens of activists and immigrant rights advocates do not agree with this increase, mainly because there are immigrants who contribute greatly to the socioeconomic development of the country, but have low income and cannot afford the new price of naturalization ceremonies, but they deserve to become US citizens.
Do you need to file an immigration application? Contact Motion Law and follow the advice of experts.

Boston supports lawsuit

A non-profit organization recently filed a lawsuit against the increase in application fees for Naturalization Ceremonies.
Boston decided to support the lawsuit and recently filed an amicus brief (also known as legal complaint support) on behalf of 34 cities, counties and municipal agencies, calling to revoke the increase in fees for naturalization ceremonies.
In the legal document, the parties involved state: “The rule of the Department of Homeland Security (“DHS”) challenged by Plaintiff in this action will radically increase the fee for naturalization applications, while at the same time making it all but impossible for most low-income applicants to seek a waiver or reduction of fees. In essence, the challenged rule seeks to impose a wealth test on naturalization.”
For now, neither the DHS nor the USCIS have given an official response to the lawsuit, nor to the amicus curiae filed by Boston.

Do you need help with an immigration case?

If you have any questions about an immigration issue or relating to a case you may have currently in progress, then please don’t hesitate to contact us for a FREE Phone Consultation with one of our expert immigration attorneys.
Simply call Motion Law today at: (202) 918-1899.
DISCLAIMER: Motion Law Immigration Social Media & YouTube Channel is made available by the law firm publisher for educational purposes only as well as to provide you with commentary on general information reported from numerous online sources. Whilst we may offer a general understanding or interpretation of the law, we not to provide specific legal advice. By using Motion Law Immigration YouTube channel you understand that there is no attorney client relationship between you and the YouTube channel site publisher. Motion Law Immigration YouTube channel should not be used as a substitute for competent legal advice from a licensed professional attorney in your state.
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2020.09.22 16:32 SuperHotUKDeals Xbox Deals with Gold - Region by region comparison per game 22/09/20 [No VPN required] for Hungary, Norway and Czech Microsoft Stores

The description of this deal was not provided by this subreddit and it's contributors. Store
Region by region comparison for purchasing games from the current Xbox Deals with Gold and Publisher sale at face value from non-UK stores using any credit or debit card (fee free cards e.g. Monzo, Starling, Revolut are obviously ideal) without the use of a VPN.
You are largely limited to the Hungary, Norway and Czech stores - the following list identifies which store is most cost effective per game and also notes where you are better off sticking with the UK store. Note - the following list may not be 100% up-to-date as the Xbox store and various comparison sites have been playing up all morning.
To get an idea of the savings to be made per game please refer to this week's UK Deals with Gold post:
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2020.09.22 15:55 texasfungus You have 14 days to register to vote in the Nov 3rd election! Register today!

Dallas Election 2020 Voting Resources
Voting is an integral part of the American democratic process. Please use the below information to ensure you are ready for the upcoming 2020 election. Regardless of your political stances, make your voice heard.
This thread is intended to be a place for people to get information on registering to vote and election day procedures and to ask questions, not to campaign for your favorite candidate(s). Please be respectful and follow the sub rules.
Registering to Vote
You are eligible to register to vote if: FAQs
Where to Vote
On your Voter Registration certificate, you will see a precinct number. Your residence is located in a specific “precinct” or area within the county where you will vote on Election Day. In some cases, precincts may be combined to accommodate joint local elections.
Where can I vote during the early voting period?
Voting during the early voting period couldn’t be easier and more convenient! Registered and eligible voters may vote at ANY early voting location located in the county of residence. Whether you are at home, work or out running errands, you will be able to find a polling place near you. Early voting locations will be populated in our search site "My Voter Page" two days prior to the first day of early voting. You may want to contact the Early Voting Clerk for State and County Elections in your county for early voting locations. Also, many newspapers publish early voting polling locations.
Note: Polling place hours vary at each early voting location.
How to Vote
When you arrive at the polling place, you will be asked to present one of the seven (7) acceptable forms of photo identification, unless you are a voter with a permanent exemption on your voter registration certificate. If you do not possess a form of acceptable photo identification and you cannot reasonably obtain one, show a supporting form of identification to the election official and execute a Reasonable Impediment Declaration. The election official will ask if you have moved and then ask you to sign the list of people who have voted in the precinct. Depending on the type of election – local, statewide, national, or combination – you will be handed:
Easy, right? For more information on your rights as a voter, please refer to our section on “Your Rights.”
Early Voting
Voting Early in Person: Generally, early voting in person begins the 17th day before Election Day (if that’s a weekend, early voting starts on Monday) and ends the 4th day before election day. (EXCEPTION: Early voting for elections held in May starts the 12th day before Election Day and ends on the 4th day before Election Day.) Vote at a location in your political subdivision that’s close to where you live or work. All other voting rules and procedures apply – e.g., eligibility and polling hours.
Special Procedures for voting early in person
Voting by Mail
You may vote early by mail if:
If you are voting early because of an expected absence, you may apply in person for a ballot by mail before the early “voting in person” period begins (usually the 17th day before the election). If you are voting by mail because you are disabled or are 65 years of age or older, you may use a single application to request ballots by mail for all county elections in the calendar year. To do so, simply mark “Annual Application” on your application for a ballot by mail when selecting the election for which you are applying. You can write your own application for a ballot by mail, as long as it contains:
Helpful hints for voting early by mail
Federal Voting Assistance Program - Voting assistance for Service members, their families and overseas citizens
What You'll Be Voting On
Key Dates:
10.05.20 - Last day to register
10.13.20 - Early voting begins
10.30.20 - Early voting ends
11.03.20 - Election Day
Other Resources:
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2020.09.22 08:45 quitzonantonietta9 All about the origin of hockey: An interesting story

All about the origin of hockey: An interesting story
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All about the origin of hockey: An interesting story

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Have you ever heard about the origin of hockey? A sport played on hard ground is soccer, basketball, or baseball. For hockey players, pace and stamina need to be paired with being able to play on a broad ice shelf. So what is hockey specific?
Nội dung

What is hockey?

What is Hockey? To us, most of the definitions are relatively new. It’s a sports team content, two teams have been organized to compete. The two teams attempt to enter the opponent’s net with a hockey stick by a puck or a round platter.
When the ball reaches the loss of the opponent, proportionate points are earned. When the ball enters, the opponent’s net will get comparable points.

Hockey on the grass

What is Hockey on the grass? It’s got an English hockey tag. For both men and women, hockey is a universal sport. But this sport typically includes more guys.
Field-hockey matches may be played on the surface of natural or artificial turf or sandy or gravel-covered pitches. Teams use relatively small 73 mm hockey sticks.
This sport typically breaks up into two teams that play the same game of boys and girls or competing girls and women. In the areas of Europe, Asia, and South Africa, hockey is prevalent.

Ice Hockey

Athletes who play ice hockey will practically be tougher than grass hockey. The competitors contesting the two teams’ contents must wear a pair of ice skates to play on the ice. Athletes must put a rubber ball in the net of the opponent with a diameter of 76.2 mm.
Athletes have other abilities, such as expertise on big ice, and strength and stamina, to play well in this material and be able to manage the game themselves.

What is Ice Hockey?

Ice hockey is a variation of hockey. It has a play similar to that of ice hockey. This game will be divided into two pairs to compete directly against each other. Members of the team of 4 players use roller skates to play, and a goalkeeper is tasked to guard the ball from the net.
The game takes place in three main rounds, with each match lasting only 15 minutes. At the end of the three innings, the team with the most goals scored on the other side will be the winner.

History of Hockey

Most games are played with curved sticks, and in many cultures, a ball can be found. Records are from 4,000 years ago of people who are interested in a hockey game.
Legend has it that Man Man Man was a sporting game for himself, he tried to find a sporting match for himself. It collected a stick and placed it on the grass from hockey’s birth to carry a ball-like object.
In Canada and the North of the United States, a style of ice hockey took place on frozen lakes with harsh surfaces and before the invention of skates. Specific forms of rivalry started to emerge in the nineteenth century.
📷Hockey player
When the material of the supply-demand segment emerged, organizations came into being to carry out market laws and regulations.
Among professional athletes, hockey players seem to be the most beautiful. The players ran the winning spirit and saw how courageous they were playing on such a shaky ice base. Their presence looks like a giant ice teddy.
Hockey players make the sport the most appealing game both on and off the ice. If you haven’t believed it before, do you now have a reply to what the hockey idea was? It’s the world’s biggest sport.

The five greatest hockey players of all time

Wayne Gretzky

The only player in the history of the NHL who won 200 points over the season is Wayne Gretzky, which Gretzky has made four achievements in his career. This is a very significant achievement. He has the best score record in 39 matches with 50 goals.
Thanks to his tenure with the Los Angeles Kings, Gretzky has shared his love for hockey in California. He eventually made the Golden State one of America’s fastest-growing hockey sites.

Bobby Orr

Just ten seasons after playing at the NHL, Orr exploits his time by improving a defender’s skills and abilities. Although Doug Harvey is the pioneer in developing the game style to help defenders shine, the concept is brought up to new heights by Orr.
With his fast and safe movements, Orr can slip around the squad, even during the game. He moves around the field. He is the defender norm with records and ample support for an attack.
Orr ‘s impact goes more profound than the ice rink as he leads players to condemn Alan Eagleson’s dishonesty.

Mario Lemieux

In his final season for Laval Voisins, Mario Lemieux scored 282 points in 70 games. In the 1988–1989 season, he had achieved the 200-point mark with 85 goals and 114 aides. Owing to health reasons, his career was interrupted for three years.
One of the best players on the ice will still be remembered for Lemieux. Besides, its reputation has been recognized and appreciated by the Mario Lemieux Society, the foundation that supports cancer research.

Gordie Howe

Howe’s the player in NHL history who scored over 800 goals. “Mr. Hockey ‘s record was also remarkable in the 1980s and when defensemen were allowed to protect themselves against offensive players.
Howe also dominates his time with six MVP titles over a decade. He spent 32 years at the NHL and the World Hockey Association from the end of World War II until the middle of the colder period.

Jaromir Jagr

He has five goals, three titles Lester Pearson (now Ted Lindsay), and one title Hart. He has been given all of a hockey player’s awards. Jaromir Jagr will easily record more than 800 goals in his career with high power, physical strength, and experience if he doesn’t have to play for three years.
At the age of 43, he is still an involved player, and the NHL teams love him most.

Ice hockey: Very elaborate sport

Football will hold a place similar to the ‘King’s sport in the Summer Olympics in the winter Olympics.

Long-term root

There are a variety of hypotheses regarding the origin of hockey, but to date, most agree the sport is still the product of a game called “keritizein” in Ancient Greece. Hockey slowly developed by the British from the end of the eighteenth hundred until it became a single game in its present form.
A match of Hockey on grass
The regular game field must meet the basic specifications of 60.98×30 m, according to the regulations created by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF). The rules are straightforward, with the ball entering the opponent’s net for each team of 6 players using skateboards (made of wood, aluminum, or synthetic resin).
The match lasts 60 minutes and is split into three recesses. The team which brings the ball into the net of the adversary will win. The main difference is that there is no time limit and the number of alternatives per game. The half-time break lasts about 15 minutes, about 30 and 17 minutes.

Summer Olympics first run

The first appearance in Belgium of Ice Hockey at the Olympic Summer 1920. From the 2004 Winter Olympics, the study was fully moved into the winter sports program and failed in 2014 before the last Olympic Games were held in Sotchi, Russia.
The major ice-hockey forces in the Olympic arena are considered by seven nations, including Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, and the USA.
USA Women Hockey team in Olympic
Just 6/64 medals in the men’s composition do not belong to one of the above seven nations. In the women’s games, Olympic and World Championship competitions are still the battle of the “giants” party, and the Canadian and American teams are still in contention for the gold medal.
Ice hockey is thriving today in size and width. It is always cold enough to shape a seasonal ice sheet of total hardness in geographically located regions, for instance, Canada, Finland, the Czech Republic, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. The area is situated in the United States’ northern latitude.
Officially, certain countries such as Canada and other countries of Europe select ice hockey as their winter national sport. The American Professional League (NHL) and the Women’s Federation in Canada (CWHL) will compete in elite North American tournaments.
Tens of thousands of people, hundreds of thousands of followers, are becoming increasingly popular via TV and as omnibus as football.

Conclusion: Hockey – Delicate, not sexy, but sexy

More than 50 percent of hockey players hold the same view that skills compensate for success. The player needs to have excellent balance when riding on a particular shoe (a lot like roller skates, but not wheels on the shoe bottom, but with a metal slice).
To gain motion skills, players must endure a long cycle from watching to training with a firm determination regularly.
Hockey training room
Hockey seen from outside is not a sport which leaves a lovely picture. A players community is playing for a small disk, but often the chaotic collisions on the field cause the audience to feel irritated.
This is not to suggest that many people fear the intense direct opposition. However, these “negative” remarks are reversed instantly while in the place of “insider.”
5 / 5 ( 2 votes )




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Underwater hockey – A brand new water sports in 2020: Have you tried it?

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All about the origin of hockey: An interesting story


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2020.09.22 07:19 BettyAnneHarris Cincinnati living...

Hello from the ho you know. I started WhiteWomen4BBC for mine and other women's information and discussion of a deep seeded addiction for African American men. I posted and deleted my previous experience with multiple sexual partners revolving around a distinctive race of men. I honestly don't mean any offense to anyone what so ever. My most recent home I reside in my friends house in Cincinnati. He has been my very close non sexual male friend for almost 30 years. Since I have been living in the city and being around a lot more people of color with my deep seeded sexual addiction has opened new doors of exciting experience. Thankfully my friend isn't prejudice of me and my addiction to multiple sexual partners with black men. Albeit I can't have my guests come home with me, I have been very active feeding my addiction. I tried a dating site of singles in Cincinnati and have even had a boyfriend since the 25th of August. But I haven't committed to an exclusive relationship and as of yesterday I am back to single exclusively like I have been most of my sexual life. Again fortunately my good friend doesn't say anything negative as I have been on a lot of "dates" since my first attempt at Cincinnati singles dating. He even takes me to different parts of the city and has been very good picking me up and taking me home like nothing happened. I don't want to be ashamed of my impulsive spontaneous and very frequent new potential partners. And I don't want to be overly open about it either. But since this topic is exclusively about mine and many many other women I will reveal my experience without being tacky and vulgar. Now that I decided to share some of my experiences I do wish I would have kept track of exactly how many new sexual partners I've experienced this past month plus. I didn't have a date a day or night for a few reasons. First of all I felt somewhat embarrassed of one night hook ups that continues every other evening whenever I get more likes in the single in Cincinnati. Especially the fact my first date was considered to be a relationship that I emphasized to be open. Still yet I feel the guilt that I have always felt after a random sexual partner that may never be again. But I have to remember that its society that has always made sexually active people feel guilty for pleasure of the flesh. I'm positive I am not alone in my sexual exploration and experiences single people in a city this big frequently have. That being said I have no idea exactly how many "dates" I have been on since the 25th of August until tonight. It hasn't been 30 but I know that its been over 15 not counting my first date I have seen in between since I started last month. So I am going to check my FB and count how many likes I actually accepted to get a better perspective on my extremely active sexual experience with the Cincinnati singles. Thank you for listening and hopefully I inspired some of you to dive in the dating scene and experience the satisfaction of a healthy and exciting sexual experiences that I have.
Betty Anne♠❤💋
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2020.09.22 05:56 morshedulpython Watch NFR Live Stream 2020 Texas Rodeo Onlin

Watch NFR Live Stream 2020 Texas Rodeo Onlin

Watch NFR Live Stream 2020 Texas Rodeo Online

When talking about 2020 Rodeo is basically it basically refers to an annual [National Finals Rodeo]( event that is meant to happen on Thursday, December 3rd to the Saturday 12th at the Globe Life Field which is located in Arlington, Texas, United States. Additionally, the scheduled event is supposed to cover about Bareback Riding, Barrel Racing, Bull Riding, Saddle Bronc Riding, Steer Wrestling, Team Roping and Time-down Roping. Importantly, NFR live stream 2020. The NFR is shaping up to be one of the most competitive and entertaining rodeos that the world has ever seen. The top cowboys in the world will be putting their boots on and taking each other on to try and claim a world championship in their respective events. Mark your calendars and make sure you do not miss out on a single second of action this December.
Long before the Dallas Cowboys were winning Super Bowls in American football, real-life cowboys were competing in the “Super Bowl of Rodeo” in Dallas, Texas as early as 1959. The seven-competition tradition began there, but also saw stops in Los Angeles, California from 1962 to 1964, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma from 1965 to 1984, and Las Vegas host since 1985 but in 2020 The National Finals Rodeo will move from its usual home in Las Vegas to Globe Life Field in Arlington in what would be the park’s first major non-baseball event since its opening this past spring.
Rodeo fans are eagerly waiting to see theNFR live stream. The National Finals Rodeo is not the only showcase of the best cowboys but also showcase of patience, bravery and spurs.
Globe Life Field, Arlington, Texas, United States
Start Date
Thursday, 3rd December 2020
End Date
Saturday, 12th December 2020
The Cowboy Channel
Live Stream
Watch Here
So, don’t miss a single moment of the WNFR live action. Don’t worry, If you can’t attend in Texas NFR, we’ll discuss here how to watch National Finals Rodeo online real-time TV coverage.
Contents [hide]
  • 1 When is the National Finals Rodeo?
  • 2 Where will the NFR Texas 2020 be held?
  • 3 What TV Channel will the NFR be on?
  • 4 How to watch NFR Live Stream 2020 Online
  • 4.1 The Cowboys Channel
  • 4.2 PRCA on The Cowboy Channel+ App
  • 4.3 RFD-TV Now
  • 4.3.1 Supported platforms
  • 4.4 Sling TV
  • 4.4.1 Supported platforms
  • 4.5 2020 NFR Live Stream Using a VPN
  • 4.5.1 ExpressVPN
  • 4.5.2 IPVanish
  • 4.5.3 NordVPN
  • 5 Can I listen to NFR 2020 live stream on radio?
  • 6 NFR Live Online on Social Media
  • 6.1 YouTube
  • 6.2 Facebook
  • 6.3 Twitter
  • 6.4 Reddit
  • 7 How much are tickets to the NFR?
  • 8 Everything You Need to Know About NFR
  • 9 Main Performance
  • 9.1 Bareback Riding
  • 9.2 Steer Wrestling
  • 9.3 Team Roping
  • 9.3.1 Headers
  • 9.3.2 Heelers
  • 9.4 Saddle Bron Riding
  • 9.5 Tie-Down Roping
  • 9.6 Barrel Racing
  • 9.7 Bull Riding
  • 9.8 All-Around Champion
  • 10 Contestants
  • 11 Super Bowl of Rodeo
  • 12 Miss Rodeo America
  • 13 Wrangler NFR Preshow
  • 14 Cowboy Christmas
  • 15 Standings
  • 16 NFR Prize Money
  • 17 Wrangler NFR World Champions
  • 18 Final Words

When is the National Finals Rodeo?

For individuals who plan on attending the NFR festivities in Texas, there are a variety of sponsored activities to get involved with during the 10-day period between 9:00AM to 5:00PM (PT). Each night’s NFR performances will officially take place between 6:45PM to 9:00PM (PT). See complete NFR schedule page.

Where will the NFR Texas 2020 be held?

All of the NFR’s main performances will take place at the Globe Life Field in Arlington, Texas. Normally home of the home of the Texas Rangers baseball team, this venue can seat up to 40,300 people and tickets will go on sale to the public on Sept. 25, 2020.

What TV Channel will the NFR be on?

The Cowboy Channel is the official media partner for the PRCA and Wrangler NFR 2020. Because this is an exclusive deal between the network and the PRCA, the NFR will not be shown on any other TV network during the 10-day period.

How to watch NFR Live Stream 2020 Online

The Wrangler NFR is a 10-day event that includes the fan-favorite Cowboy Christmas as well as the PRCA National Convention. The schedule also includes nightly Buckle Presentations, Benny Binion’s World Famous Wrangler NFR Bucking Horse Sale, the PRCA Awards Banquet and Gala also the Pro Rodeo League of Women Style Show and Luncheon. All performances will be covered by The Cowboy Channel live and simulcast on RFD-TV. Wrangler National Finals Rodeo (NFR) move to The Cowboy Channel (TCC) and RFD-TV beginning in 2020. The performances will also be streamed on the PRCA on Cowboy Channel Plus app. The PRCA on Cowboy Channel Plus app users will be able to stream events both live and recorded.

The Cowboys Channel

The ultimate annual rodeo event will now be seen by millions of people live simultaneously on two national TV networks. Also included in the deal is a wide variety of other PRCA programming, including expanded live coverage of the PRORODEO TOUR and the PRCA’s Xtreme Bulls Tour events which will result in a huge increase in the amount, availability and quality of PRCA PRORODEO coverage on The Cowboy Channel here. The Cowboy Channel now available on Dish Network-232, Direct TV-603, Cox-260 anytime, and anywhere. You can enjoy Rural Media on these platforms:
  • AT&T (Channel 568 & 1568)
  • Charter Spectrum
  • Comcast
  • Cox
  • DIRECTV (Channel 345)
  • DISH (Channel 231)
  • Mediacom
  • Sling TV’s Heartland Package
  • Suddenlink
To find out if RFD-TV and The Cowboy Channel are available in your area, please click here and enter your zip code also choose your Pay TV provider.

PRCA on The Cowboy Channel+ App

The PRCA on The Cowboy Channel+ App will keep fans up-to-date with their favorite PRCA rodeos and athletes, as well as provide behind-the-scenes access to livestreamed and on demand PRCA rodeo events from around the country. The content can be accessed via the mobile app (available on Android and iOS), as well as any browser, smart TV or device. Viewers will be able to enjoy free access to up-to-the-minute news, bios, rodeos and highlights. Those with a subscription will unlock premium content such as up to six simultaneous live rodeo feeds, classic PRCA archived rodeos, The Cowboy Channel video-on-demand programming, and the only place viewers can stream the National Finals Rodeo (NFR). The Cowboy Channel+ is available for only $9.99 a month or save up to 25% and purchase the whole year for $89.99. To sign up for the PRCA on The Cowboy Channel+ App, visit


RFD-TV Now delivers both real-time NFR 2020 LIVE programming as well as an expansive on-demand library with access to more than 90 shows such as Hee Haw, Opry Encore, The Best of the Marty Stuart Show, Ag PHD, and FarmHer, as well as daily broadcasts of Market Day Report and Rural Evening News. RFD-TV Now is available on a huge lineup of streaming players and devices including Roku players, Roku TVs, and Amazon’s Fire TV. RFD-TV Now costs $9.99 a month or $89.99 a year.
Supported platforms
Can I watch RFD-TV on Roku, Fire TV, Apple TV, or Chromecast? Yes! you can here is the complete list:
  • Android 4.4+
  • Android TV 5.0+
  • Apple TV 9.0+
  • Amazon Fire TV
  • IOS 9.0+
  • Roku
  • Web: Chrome, Firefox, IE11, Edge

Sling TV

Sling TV includes RFD TV as part of their Sling Blue Heartland Extra package for $35 a month. Sling TV has 30 channels as part of their plan, including A&E, AMC, BET, Bravo, Cartoon Network, CNN, Comedy Central, Discovery, Disney Channel, E!, ESPN, Food Network, Fox News, Freeform, FX, HGTV, History, Investigation Discovery, Lifetime, MSNBC, Paramount Network, Syfy, TBS, TLC, TNT, Travel Channel, truTV, and USA Network.
This is the full Sling TV Channel List.
Every Sling TV subscriber can record to their 10 hours Cloud DVR, while 3 users can stream at the same time.
Supported platforms
Sling TV supports a wide-range of devices to stream including Amazon Fire TV, Apple TV, Google Chromecast, Roku, iPhone/iPad, Web Browsers, Android Phone/Tablet, Android TV, Xbox, Samsung Smart TV, LG Smart TV, and VIZIO Smart TV. Sling TV is not available to stream on PlayStation and Nintendo.

2020 NFR Live Stream Using a VPN

Sling TV is only available to residents of the United States. Even viewers located in our neighbor to the north, Canada, cannot access the Sling TV service. In these situations, a reliable and encrypted VPN (Virtual Private Network) can prove to be helpful. A VPN will allow an individual to remotely connect to a server located in a different country that allows the desired website viewing to take place. The following VPNs can prove to be very useful:
  • ExpressVPN
  • This source offers a selection of servers that spans over 90 countries. Currently, they offer monthly ($12.95/month), semi-annual ($59.95/6-months), and annual ($99.95) plans. Included with each plan is the offer of a 30-day money back guarantee in the event that a user is dissatisfied.
  • IPVanish
  • The offering from this source includes servers that span over 60 countries. The current subscription plans consist of monthly ($10/month), quarterly ($26.99/3-months), and annual ($77.99/year) options. Included with each plan is the offer of a 7-day money back guarantee in the event that a user is dissatisfied.
  • NordVPN
  • While maintaining a selection of servers that spans over 60 countries, this VPN source currently has subscription plans that consist of monthly ($11.95/month), semi-annual ($54/6-months), annual ($83.88/year), and bi-annual ($95.75/2-years) options.
Once you have connected to US’ Fastest server, the Sling website will instantly be accessible to you. Simply subscribe to Sling Live TV service and enjoy live streaming of all your favorite TV channels right at home!

Can I listen to NFR 2020 live stream on radio?

This season, you can hear daily from the ten days of the Wrangler NFR, scheduled for Dec. 3-12 (find an affiliate near you), as well as on SiriusXM serving rural America and Canada and is available to more than 34 million vehicles and homes. RURAL RADIO also offers a broad slate of Western sports programming year-round featuring Western Sports Roundup and coverage of WPCA and PRCA events.
Launched in March 2019 under the theme of “All Dirt, All Rodeo, All Year,” NFR Extra follows current and former rodeo contestants, country music performers, stock contractors, rodeo industry insiders and more. New episodes are released weekly with the plan to broadcast daily from the ten days of the Wrangler NFR, scheduled for Dec. 3-12. If not listening on RURAL RADIO Channel 147 on SiriusXM, NFR Extra can be accessed at or on Spotify, Apple Podcast, iHeart or anywhere fans like to listen.

NFR Live Online on Social Media

One increasingly popular method of viewing NFR live stream comes in the form of social media viewing. The way this typically works is through an individual using their mobile device to live stream the event to a social media platform of their choosing. The most popular platforms for this method are as follows:
  • YouTube
  • The most popular video-sharing site on the planet has historically built its name upon uploaded videos. However, the site now allows live-streaming capabilities, making it perfect for free viewing of live events such as NFR, as long as a streaming user can be found.
  • Facebook
  • Various individual accounts or pages are bound to be streaming the National Finals Rodeo events. Interested individuals will have to search for these opportunities throughout the platform as it gets closer to the festivities.
  • Twitter
  • This platform has increasingly become the go-to place for action as it happens in real-time. That makes it a prime destination when searching for all things related to NFR. A quick search bar or hashtag follow will almost assuredly lead to the discovery someone streaming the NFR.
  • Reddit
  • Mainly known as a news aggregation site, this platform has increasingly become a well-known discussion forum hub. Within those forums, there is undoubtedly discussion concerning how to watch the NFR live stream on Reddit.

How much are tickets to the NFR?

National Finals Rodeo Tickets have been placed on this website by our trusted brokers, who offer those tickets in a range of values. Have a look at all the ticket prices and select the tickets which best suit your budget. 2020 Wrangler NFR new ticket prices are as follow:
  • Balcony: Individual – $76, Season – $760, 4pk – $304, 6pk – $456
  • Plaza: Individual – $105, Season – $1,050
  • Gold Buckle: Individual – $300, Season – $3,000

Everything You Need to Know About NFR

Beyond the payouts for the Cowboys, the PRCA estimates that the event brings in about $90 million annually to the Las Vegas economy. Furthermore, recent attendance stats have shown that 177,565 rodeo enthusiasts decked out in Wrangler jeans, Justin boots and cowboy hats attended events at the Thomas & Mack with an additional 40,000 fans who watched at the 40 hotels who hosted watch parties. It is during this rare time of the year that many marquees on the Strip have the face of bull riders replace DJs’ faces.

Main Performance

Seven main events have historically taken place at the NFR. Each event has its own monetary prizes that are paid out, and those payouts are determined by each top-placing competitor’s rank in relation to the event’s overall prize pool. Individuals placed in the top-six of a particular event are paid out accordingly, while individuals placed in the top-eight of the overall NFR are also paid out. The NFR’s main events are as follows:
  • Bareback Riding
  • This consists of a horseback cowboy using a bareback rigging as the primary means of staying on top of the horse. This grip has often been compared to the equivalent of hanging on to a suitcase handle and makes for the only support that a cowboy has on top of the wildly bucking horse. An 8-second ride constitutes a qualified ride and the cowboys is judged on riding technique.
  • Steer Wrestling
  • This act involves a horseback steer wrestler, alternatively known as a “bulldogger”, bringing a fast-moving steer to a halt on its back as fast as possible. The bulldogger utilizes a combination of strength, technique, speed, and precision to jump off of their horse from a designated starting point and onto a steer sprinting off from the same starting point.
  • Team Roping
  • Headers
  • One of two horseback team members whose job is to successfully rope the head of the steer in one of three tries as fast as possible; around both horns, around one horn and the head, or around the neck.
  • Heelers
  • One of two horseback team members whose job is to successfully rope the hind legs of the steer as soon as the header has successfully done their part. To avoid a 5-second penalty for roping only one hind leg, the heeler must rope both hind legs.
  • Saddle Bron Riding
  • Similar to Bareback Riding, the goal of the horseback cowboy is to maintain their balance as much as possible for 8 seconds while the horse is bucking. In this event, however, the cowboy sits on a saddle while using one hand to hold on to a thick rein that’s attached to the horse’s halter.
  • Tie-Down Roping
  • This event centers around a cowboy on horseback attempting to restrain a calf by throwing a well-timed rope loop that’s attached to the cowboy’s horse. The cowboy and the calf both leave from a designated starting point, with the calf getting a slight head-start. The cowboy depends on the horse to mitigate any slack in the rope after dismounting, then proceeds to tie-up the calf as fast as possible.
  • Barrel Racing
  • This is a women’s event where horseback cowgirls race against the clock to complete a strategically set course where barrels are set up as landmarks. The intent is for the cowgirls to complete a cloverleaf-shaped run around 3 barrels placed in a triangular formation as fast as possible. Barrels that are accidentally knocked over result in 5-second penalties.
  • Bull Riding
  • The cowboy on top of the bull has the main objective of staying on top and maintaining their balance for 8 seconds. They are judged based on technique and can earn extra points by spurring while the bull is bucking. The cowboy stays on top of the bull by grasping a flat braided rope, which also wraps around the bull’s chest.
  • All-Around Champion
  • Being crowned the All-Around Champion speaks volumes about the versatility and high level of talent exhibited by the winning cowboy. In order to receive this honor, the cowboy must have won the most prize money in a given year and competed in at least 2 NFR events while earning at least $3,000 in each of those events. This is widely known as the highest honor bestowed by the PRCA.


There are 120 cowboys from all over the United States that will step foot as competitors within the NFR. A full list of the contestants can be found on the event’s Contestant Roster page. The top 10 ranked competitors are as follows:
  1. Tuf Cooper – Tie-Down Roping
  2. Trevor Brazile – Tie-Down Roping
  3. Sage Kimzey – Bull Riding
  4. Tim O’Connell – Bareback Riding
  5. Jacobs Crawley – Saddle Bronc Riding
  6. Caleb Bennett – Bareback Riding
  7. Ryder Wright – Saddle Bronc Riding
  8. Rhen Richard – Team Roping (Header)
  9. Shane Hanchey – Tie-Down Roping
  10. Brittany Pozzi Tonozzi – Barrel Racing

Super Bowl of Rodeo

The NFR has consistently been referred to with this phrase because of the sheer massiveness of its popularity and money-generating power within the context of rodeo. The event is considered to be so big and consistently sold-out that the UNLV basketball team that normally uses the NFR’s venue during the season has to annually build its schedule in a way that keeps the team on the road for the duration of the NFR festivities.

Miss Rodeo America

This event is a pageant that takes place in conjunction with the NFR as part of the NFR’s overall festivities. State rodeo queen winners from across the United States compete for the Miss Rodeo America crown and put themselves in line to potentially win $20,000, among other smaller prizes. In addition to the prizes, the winner is expected to travel to various rodeos throughout the United States and to promote the rodeo during the subsequent year.

Wrangler NFR Preshow

The former Miss Rodeo America titleholder is no stranger to the excitement of the “Super Bowl” of Western competition, with six years of WNFR reporting under her belt. She is most excited about bringing the pre-show to the fans. Be prepared for this Wrangler NFR Preshow, don’t miss a single moment of the Pro Rodeo live action.

Cowboy Christmas

For those that need a break from the constant adrenaline that comes with the NFR’s main events, the Cowboy Christmas experience allows for a welcomed change of pace. This portion of NFR centers around cowboy shopping and serves as a marketplace for hundreds of exhibitors from the United States and Canada to sell to thousands of eager buyers. Typically taking place at the Las Vegas Convention Center, Cowboy Christmas will also move to Arlington, TX in 2020. All exhibitors will have the opportunity to Opt-In/Opt-Out for 2020.


The 2019 PRCA season has been extremely competitive as a lot of the top cowboys are gunning for glory. Tuf Cooper sits atop of the all-around standings and many experts believe that he is going to win his second all-around title in a row. There will be a lot of close competitions and many of the world championships could come down to the last day. You can check the current standings here.

NFR Prize Money

The total payout for the entire event is $10 million and will remain at that amount until 2020. After that, the amount will be adjusted and remain in place for the subsequent five years. All 120 qualifying contestants receive $10,000 as part of participating. This year’s detailed payout structure can be found on the PRCA’s 2019 Wrangler NFR Payoff page.

Wrangler NFR World Champions

2019 All Around World Champion
Stetson Wright
The 2019 NFR World Champions
Bareback Riding
Clayton Biglow
Steer Wrestling
Ty Erickson
Team Roping (Header)
Clay Smith
Team Roping (Heeler)
Wesley Thorp
Saddle Bronc Riding
Zeke Thurston
Tie-Down Roping
Haven Meged
Barrel Racing
Hailey Kinsel
Bull Riding
Sage Kimzey
For a full recap, please click here.

Final Words

All in all, the National Finals Rodeo is a landmark event and a de facto defining period of time within any given rodeo year. For anyone who is a fan of rodeo, the main events and the surrounding festivities are must-see events and must-participate experiences if the financial means allow for it. Don’t miss a minute of the exhilarating NFR live stream action this year from December 3rd until December 12th.
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2020.09.21 17:43 icecoolsushobhan [r/IndiaSpeaks - Biweekly Geopolitics Thread] Abraham Accords signed, TikTok escapes US ban, and the CIA's Tibet Program

Welcome to this week's edition of the Biweekly Geopolitics Thread, where we discuss all the news from around the world. Discussion does not have to be related to India, and users are encouraged to share and discuss stories in the comments. Here are a few stories to get the discussion rolling:

Top 5 stories

  1. COVID-19 cases surge in Europe
European countries, once presented as benchmarks for effective use of lockdowns to tackle the coronavirus pandemic, are experiencing a resurgence, fueled by movement of people across countries. On Sunday, France reported over 10,000 new cases while the UK reported 4,000. The WHO warned that a very serious situation was emerging in Europe, which is compounded by the fact that the previous lockdown had such a massive economic impact that doing it again could be difficult politically, with protests already erupting in Madrid. Nonetheless, new restrictions on travel and daily life are expected.
  1. PLA Air Force simulates attack on US base
The Communist Party of China's armed air wing - the PLA Air Force - released a video of simulated war games in which nuclear-capable fighter jets were shown to be attacking a model of the U.S.'s Andersen Air Force Base in Guam. At the same time, the PLAAF sent fighter jets close to Taiwan, beyond the half-way point in the Taiwan Straits, causing Taiwan to deploy an air defense missile system and scramble its own jets. This points to increased tension in the East China Sea, where the US has been conducting naval operations with two of its aircraft carriers.
  1. Abraham Accords signed between Israel and UAE, Bahrain
In a glitzy ceremony at the White House, Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu (who is also the country's foreign minister) joined the foreign ministers of UAE and Bahrain to sign the historic peace deal - called the Abraham Accords - that would establish diplomatic ties between the countries for the first time, doubling the number of Arab countries with official ties to Israel. Marking that historic move, Saudi Arabia allowed an Israeli El Al flight to use its air space en route to Abu Dhabi. Previously, only Air India was allowed to fly over Saudi Arabia in flights to and from Israel. The presence of Bahrain - largely seen as a satellite state of Saudi Arabia - strongly implies that the latter is on board with the deal as well. Speculation is rife that Morocco and Sudan are also looking to recognize Israel.
  1. TikTok and WeChat survive US ban, for now
On Sunday, the US was all set to ban new downloads of popular Chinese apps TikTok and WeChat, over concerns that the apps were used for surveillance by the Chinese Communist Party. However, both survived the ban. TikTok's US operations will be owned partly by Walmart and Oracle in a deal that has the blessings of the White House, while a federal judge stayed a ban on WeChat. Oracle will host all of TikTok's US data locally. The WeChat issue is more complicated, as it is the only means of communication between American citizens of Chinese origin and their families back home in China, where virtually every other app is banned.
  1. Rare sarcophagi found in Egypt
In a happy moment for human history, archaeologists in Egypt announced the discovery of a tomb with 27 sarcophagi dating back to about 2,500 years. Experts at the site, who had to climb down an 11 m deep well in difficult conditions (no heavy equipment is allowed at the site to avoid damaging it), say that the tomb seems to have been unopened since the sarcophagi were first buried. The tomb was uncovered in the town of Saqqara, south of the capital Cairo, which was an active burial ground in one of the ancient world's great civilizations.

Geopolitical History: The CIA in Tibet

With tensions between India and China at the border reaching historic levels, there has been renewed discussion about Tibet. For over a thousand years, the plateau, often called the "roof of the world" for its height, was a Buddhist theocracy led by a religious figure, the Dalai Lama. The kingdom, like Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, was a vassal state of the Chinese emperor, paying an annual tribute but not being directly administered by China. All that changed in 1950, when the PLA invaded and annexed Tibet, forcing the Dalai Lama to flee to India and bringing China's border right to the Indian subcontinent.
For two decades, the US through the CIA, the State Department, and the Department of Defense, ran operations in Tibet to prevent expansion of communism in the "autonomous region" and keep up hopes for an independent Tibet. In declassified documents, it has been shown that senior US administration members saw Tibet through two lenses: first, China's view that control of Tibet would give it a buffer zone in case western powers chose to invade China via India; and second, the American view that China and the Soviet Union would use Tibet as a staging ground to invade South and West Asia if necessary. In either case, an independent Tibet was considered the best means of maintaining status quo.
The CIA program in Tibet involved training armed Tibetan resistance fighters as well as spreading anti-Communist propaganda, and began when Gyalo Thondup, the Dalai Lama's exiled brother, made contact with CIA operatives in India. At the height of the program, the CIA was spending almost $2 million a year. Fighters were trained both in the US as well as in a secret camp in the Nepal-Tibet border, and it is believed that it was these fighters that enabled the Dalai Lama to safely escape to India before he could be arrested by the PLA in 1959. Fighters also intercepted Chinese documents, proving to be a valuable source of intelligence into the world's most populous Communist-controlled country.
The Tibetan resistance was successful in holding back PLA forces in Tibet, who by 1960 numbered into tens of thousands and were facing huge costs and logistical challenges, but it led to the local civilian population facing harsh reprisals, including mass arrests and bombing of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries. Declassified documents also showed that Indian Prime Minister Nehru opposed any anti-Communist activities in India, only willing to support the Dalai Lama's right to practice his religion but not Tibetan independence. The CIA program in Tibet came to an abrupt halt in 1972, after the historic visit of US President Richard Nixon to China and normalization of ties between the two countries. Fighters were allegedly given INR 10,000 to buy land or start a business in India, and all support to Tibet was halted by order of the White House.
In his 1991 autobiography, the Dalai Lama criticized the CIA for supporting Tibet not because they cared about Tibet, but merely as a pawn in the Cold War.

What stories from around the world caught your attention?
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2020.09.21 14:50 Draemeth [For Hire] Marketing and SEO

My name is Zack Frederick and I started doing marketing several years ago as i began my first yoga ‘e-business', realising very quickly that the difference between me and the next John Doe wasn’t the product but the presentation. So I set about, by trial and error, learning how I could sell more Yoga mats than John Doe. It wasn’t long before I realised I was very good at the marketing aspect, and I didn’t really like things like warehousing and distribution.
Today I’m most interested in building reports, designing paid campaigns and helping with Instagram.
I’ve compiled a few free tips for general marketing and SEO.

Brand awareness

First off. Influencers will not magically make your website successful. You have to be your own influencer. Over my tenor, I have spent thousands on social media analysis, rebranding and learning tricks like sticking state names across American products or even changing the colour of my website depending on the demographics of my audience. Spoilers, guys love red. Here’s an example data set.
Last year, I ran a campaign for one of my shoe clients, and we used the pride of state consumers to grow his shoe business. I researched the best colours to use for different states and gave him a list, we put the state names across his shoes and marketed directly to them through instagram. It wasn’t long before his conversion metrics were soaring.
Here's an example report from one of my clients -


I have worked with a lot of musicians, a big part of them started with low view, audio-only videos. I learnt quickly that for them to achieve success they had to provide value, so i told them to create videos. They did and then ta-da, they had 4500 views when they only had 200 view music videos before. For the next step, I even got them contacts with massive digital celebrities. My proudest connection having been ‘Ninja’ during the height of his fortnite campaign, I organised the marketing behind several viral Fortnite music parodies with now millions of views.

Trend riding

Make use of trends in your business. If something is so mainstream and big, why ignore it? In the past I have made use of the political trends in the American election with trump AND hillary brands on some of my clients products, with the pro trump and pro hillary supporters wanting to sport their political beliefs no matter the cost.
I see a lot of website based businesses underuse social media with broad attempts at Facebook ads and Instagram ads, ill go to digital marketing agencies and see they either have no social following or a huge botted one. It's a terrible idea to buy followers, if you want to cut corners then you should look at buying a smaller business with a bigger social following.
Here’s the impressions from a tweet I made on the first day of creating a company a twitter platform and using trend riding and collaboration to grow it 4K Impressions on one tweet in 15 minutes - we hit 80k impressions in the first day. I did this from simply mimiking the formula for success from a similiar company account, i don't want to try change the magic formula for success.



You really do have to stay in touch with your business to know what's working and what isn't, companies like Toys R Us refused to do that and stuck with huge stockpiles of star wars toys and then they collapsed. Blockbusters where ahead of the curve for digital movies and then they refused to change, Netflix changed and Netflix won. Amazon learnt to use online selling and left companies like Tescos with financial crisis.
The big boom in marketing that I’ve seen is social media marketing, marketers can create huge social following for companies and use that platform to sell content for extremely low costs in comparison to the tens of thousands it costs to use other platforms such as radio. Social media marketing has become somewhat controversial, but it is important to always stay open minded.

Collaboration** & Viral content

I can not stress the importance of working with other people. Every billionaire i know of has had a mentor, every big company success story had business partners. I've had far more success in clients who have listened to me and done collaborative work with digital celebs, with a dog product business making thousands of sales when they worked with vlogger Zoella and gave her free products.
Viral content is very important because every Youtuber with over 1 million subscribers has started off big and managed to keep it big, nobody grinded and slowly rose up at an equal exponent. Hard work is fine but being consistent and mixing it up, copying the viral content of others is an easy way of bringing in secondary viewership and traffic. Pewdiepie, the biggest youtuber on the planet, started with viral horror content. Ninja, the biggest streamer, grinded for 7 years but only truly struck gold with the virality of Fortnite. So it makes sense to repeat their methods.

Key words

It is an obvious thing to say but it's neglected, key words are very important. I had a crypto business come to me and ask why their site wasnt doing very well, and i looked through it and saw they never mentioned anything beyond bitcoin. Bitcoin is a very expensive key word to market, with costs of the raw word being as high as 38$ per click. I had to bring them down to earth with harsh truths, i rewrote their entire site using SEM tools in mind - with key words and phrases like "Altcoin exchange" and using the names of the top 100 altcoins across the site.


Search Engine Optimisation is the name given to increasing the value and raw volume of your organic traffic. A successful website always wants as many of the most likely consumer base to encounter their product because that’s the hardest point of digital business. Your websites SEO is determined by crawlers which regularly check up on your website and update their index which is later used by an algorithm to order results when someone ‘googles’ something.
Today I’m going to be talking you through some key points about SEO that I personally audit for businesses.


Https://Www.Example.Com is an example of something we call a ‘root domain’ which is made up of protocol (https://) subdomain (www.) domain name (example) and top-level domain (.com). These are the basic parts. It’s important that the protocol is the best and safest it can be or else google will punish you. It’s also important your domain name and top-level domain are appropriate and readable. The words used in your subdomain can also affect how customers interpret your website, websites can be named after their market base for easy marketing. In addition, the age and previous registrations of your domain matter. It’s important these factors are appropriately considered in your website. Be minimal with subdomains.


Google knows where it’s users are and what they’re using from their browser data, IPs and MACs and then matches them with websites in their areas or appropriate to searches. Ever since the infamous 2016 update ‘Possum’ it is not something you can ignore. Even jobs based websites had to use the meta data ‘Jobs Schema’ (from 2017 onwards) to tell google where your website was focused. Location specific landing pages matter. You have to pay credence to DNS (domain name server) and Glue to keep TTL (time to load) and mobile in mind, especially with more mobile users than ever. CMS (customs) is also part of this discussion: themes and plugins are a factor in Google’s ranking. One way to improve TTL is through CDN’s and we have to consider how we approach them to rank better. Sometimes, you might face penalties and there are ways to know; that’s a little too hard to explain here but PM me for more.


Nobody loves a book more than google. Robots will read all your website, even the stuff humans don’t bother with. Things like duplication will annoy Google who doesn’t like reading things twice. CTA’s (buttons basically) have to go somewhere nice and if they don’t work properly google will punish you. Human biases are important too. The user experience will effect their retention and Google will clock that. There’s also lots of minor things that can stack up: Filenames (help you rank on Images) Thin content (Google sees it as lazy) phrase diversity (spamming key words is noticed) and URL structures too! Make sure your in and outbound links are healthy as well as having keyword mapping where you assign the correct words to the right pages. Make sure your anchor texts (viewable when linking) are descriptive yet succinct. And finally: link velocity, a healthy eco system of link building is important to longevity and renewed SEO.

Technical Stuff.

Consistent anchor elements are important to prevent 404s. Don’t use abbreviations with naming files and folders. Limit use of dates for file folder names. Your site architecture has to be simple and close to the root domain so the click depth isn’t too great! Links to and from your site can’t be dead ends, and use breadcrumbs! Be wary of canonical issues from similar content across multiple URLs. Treat Cookies and Session IDs properly, privacy laws are ever changed and mismatching them can be dangerous. There’s lots more to go into like header status codes, site maps, GSC Crawl Errors but Reddit has a text limit so I’ve deleted some of my post.

PM me if interested in my services or with questions.

~28-35 USD hourly
submitted by Draemeth to forhire [link] [comments]

2020.09.21 04:20 Russel112 ILPT: How to make a verified cashapp account (level 2)

- What do you need to create a Cashapp account? 1. Any FREE VPN. 2. At least 1$. 3. A number from - How to do it? 1. First of all download any free VPN from the app store/google play. Connect to any US server. 2. Buy ssn and dob (Social security number and date of birth), the best site to buy is 3. Download Cashapp, if you aren't a US citizen you won't find it in google play, so search "Cashapp.apk" in google and download the app. In app store just change the country to US. 4. Create a new account, use your e-mail or a number from text now. 5. It asks for full name, use the name on the SSN you bought. Same with the ZIP. 6. Now you have to order a cash card. Tap order, you don't have to customize it. 7. In the mailing address you have to options, you either ask your american friend to receive the card for you or just send it to the mailing address in the SSNDOB. 8. When you hit next you will put the legal name again and it will ask for the last 4 digits in the social security number. 9. Congratulations you didn't have to waste a few bucks on this account, it didn't take 5 minutes to do all that. - How to cash out? If you want to deposit your money to cash you have many options, the first and easiest is exchanging, you are gonna need to look for an exchanger to cash out to bitcoin. If you ever need help with this just send me a private message. Or just link your bank account. - Having troubles creating the account? So if you are having troubles creating the account just send me a private message and I'll create one for you, free! Or you can use a holder to accept payments for you.
I hope this helps you guys out :)
submitted by Russel112 to IllegalLifeProTips [link] [comments]

2020.09.21 01:57 gregcoit Using trumps words against him

I'm a liberal who lives in a rural, trump-loving community (fortunately, it's a blue county in Colorado which is on the blue-side of purple nowadays). I obviously support Biden and Harris and contribute what money I can, but I want to do more.
The good news is that trump is his own wort enemy, and I want to use his own words against him. I'm hoping to crowd source a list of the lies, contradictions, crazy, racist and/or otherwise anti-america things trump has said. The plan is to print this list out, along with the urls of the sources (and a link this post as well for those who don't want to type all the urls ) and mail it to everyone in my neighborhood with a trump poster in front of their house. Sadly, most won't be swayed by facts, no matter the source, but some may be.
My preference would be that we use primary sources - ie: video or audio of the man himself, or links to his own tweets. When this isn't possible then fact-checking by conservative-friendly news organizations would be preferable over liberal-friendly news organizations. Neutral news sites like PBS, NPR and the BBC would suffice as well.
I'm planning to invite the "trump criticizes trump" subreddit to contribute to the list as well
Please no altered videos or quotes taken out of context. I want this list to be impeachable in it's truth (unlike you know who).
I'll try to update this list with the stuff you all find. I'll keep the list in date order unless we find examples of him directly contradicting himself (the date will then be the first statement). If you find a "better" source for something someone else has already posted, please add it as a comment to the original posting in this thread for sanity's sake.
One last thing. You may be tempted the gift reddit coins to me or others who contribute to this thread. While the thought is appreciated, my hope is that you would give that money to the candidate of your choice, be they a local or national candidate. I genuinely believe this country would be unrecognizable, and democracy would be dead, after another 4 years of trump.
submitted by gregcoit to JoeBiden [link] [comments]

2020.09.20 23:12 TheAtomicEsquire LEVIATHAN Rising: A Intelligence Report on an Impending Launch

Greetings, salutations, and whatnot. Found myself wanting to add something to LEVIATHAN Rising for this week's Submod Sunday/fan-content day, but have been mostly crunching delta-V numbers for the weekend. So I opted to divert a bit (or a lot) from my plans and just run with it in universe. Something more in media res than I'd been contemplating, set in the distant year of 1972, told from in-universe primary sources rather than an exposition dump.
Definitely more fun silliness here for space cadets. To say nothing of the general silliness it contains, as God knows this setting needs a bit of levity.
For just what LEVIATHAN Rising is, see the introductory post to the project here.
On with the show, then.
Copy of memorandum furnished by Operative SHINIGAMI ROKU at last debriefing. Operative terminated thereafter due to carelessness. Additional work will need to be done refining our understanding of Kraken drives if the goal of instigating a flashpoint-via-sabotage is to be pursued further.
Heil Himmler!
DATE: 24/5/32* TO: Tokkeitai** Science & Technology Directorate FROM: Takamichi Chijiro, Senior Analyst (Space Intelligence) RE: Briefing on June USN Astronautical Service Launch * May 24, 1972 [/RvK] ** The Imperial Japanese Navy equivalent of the Kenpeitai. [/RvK]
Pursuant to the Directorate’s request, my team has reviewed the available information furnished to us regarding the launch of the United States Navy’s latest spacecraft. Below please find our summary of what is known. Metric conversions have been made wherever possible and rounded to preserve readability. Certain estimations have been made, as well, where necessary to provide a full picture for the Directorate.
U.S.S. Theodore Geisel (FGK-11) Specifications Type: Norman Rockwell-class Flight IB Cutter Crew: 26 (4 officers and 22 enlisted) Length: 66.7m Width: 11.5m Wet Mass: 1,101,620kg Dry Mass: 562,133kg Delta-V: 17,688 m/s Thrust: 4,100,000 N Specific Impulse: 3,750 s Exhaust Velocity: 35,010 m/s Motto: Semper fidelis, C per centum
Anticipated Flight Plan:
The U.S.S. Geisel will depart the Canaveral Staging Lagoon on or about June 11 atop staged atop a JA1AJ Andromeda rocket, that will be towed to its staging area the same day. On-site fueling of the Andromeda is expected to take two days. Ascent crew will be delivered on or about June 13. Same-day lift-off will occur, with Andromeda lofting the Geisel to altitude of approximately 100km before the Geisel ignites her Kraken drive and ascends into 250km parking orbit.
Once in orbit, the Geisel will put into NSS Adams Island in LEO to take on her full crew complement and disembark the ascent crew. Shakedown cruising over the following 90 days will consist of paying port-calls at NSS Arthur Island in GEO and NSS Roosevelt Island at EML1 with vigorous cislunar maneuvering prior to returning to NSS Adams Island for formal acceptance by CINC ASTROCOM, VADM Robert Heinlein, and receive general deployment orders.
Rocket Stack: Wet Mass Length
Powered Flight Module:·
Habitat Module:·
Gunnery Module:
Engineering Module:
Half-Faring Propulsion Bus:·
Analysts’ Thoughts
  1. The details of the Rockwell class are well-established from prior surveys of open-source and HUMINT resources. If the Directorate’s true concern was with regard to whether this vessel was to be armed with nuclear munitions, in future, a more directed request would have proven a more productive usage of scarce analysis resources. As with the last three of these requests prior to Rockwell launches, the Americans appear to be genuine in their statements that this class of vessel is intended only for orbital patrol and not strategic bombing.
  2. Most of the information contained in this report was corroborated via official American governmental publications. The lack of overt secrecy reinforces that the Rockwell class is not intended to be a nuclear combatant. By the same token, that the first of the USN’s “corvettes” – the U.S.S. Delaware – is shrouded in enough secrecy to make a Burgundian feel at home should be taken as a sign that those are being designed as full-fledged atomic warships.
  3. The preponderance of American assets in near-Earth and cislunar space is increasing at a rate that their lead will become insurmountable even for the combined space forces of the Empire and the Reich unless drastic measures are taken. (More drastic, that is, that working with Germans.) We recommend the acceleration of Project WATATSUMI as much as possible and careful reconsideration of the potential benefits that could be reaped from initiating construction of Project GOJIRA.
  4. The ships of the Rockwell class have traditionally been named after model American citizens or individuals feel the Americans feel have contributed to their cultural patrimony. The team could find no reference of a “Theodore Geisel” in our searches, though they were only cursory due to being beyond the scope of Directorate’s request. We recommend referring the matter to a specialist on Anglo-American history and culture to ascertain who the individual is, as it might provide useful insights.
  5. To whoever suggested investigating “the feasibility of sabotaging vessel to cause catastrophic failure in flight”, firing is recommended. “Pulse unit” is a very technical way of saying “atomic shaped charge”. It is not recommended to attempt to tamper with a vessel that is ascending to orbit atop a string of atomic blasts while carrying several thousand more atom bombs. The boom might be impressive if successful, but it is highly likely the Home Islands will be contaminated by the dozens of tons of plutonium and/or uranium released into the atmosphere. The boom probably won’t be impressive, though, as pulse units do not work like that, either.
submitted by TheAtomicEsquire to TNOmod [link] [comments]

2020.09.20 18:48 amberamazine Know Your Voting Options and Register Before October 4th!

I recently signed up to be a poll worker for election day. Regardless of your political affiliation, I think everyone can agree it is especially important that this election is conducted as openly and fairly as possible. Every eligible citizen has a right to have their voice heard.
So, as best I can, I want to outline what you need to know to vote as of this post. All information is taken from the SC Votes website. I strongly suggest you google your county's board of elections website or Facebook page. It will contain the most relevant and up-to-date information for your area.
The deadline to register to vote in SC is October 4th!!
In-Person Voting (on Election Day)
Per SC law, all voters are required to show a valid state or federal-issued photo ID that has not expired. Acceptable IDs include:
If you forget your ID, or if you are unable to obtain an ID because of issues such as a disability or illness, lack of transportation, lack of a birth certificate, family responsibilities, a religious objection to being photographed, or other reasonable issue you will be allowed to cast a provisional ballot. You still must present your voter registration card (either the one sent to you in the mail or you can pull it up on your phone HERE.) Pull this up on election day and verify you are at the correct polling place!
Also, I know everyone feels very strongly about the candidates. Please do not wear campaign swag to the polling place. By state law, no campaign material may be within 200ft of a polling place. Leave your MAGA hat or your Biden mask in your car or take it off and put it in a purse or pocket before getting in line. If you show up to the polling place with campaign materials and you refuse to cover or remove them you WILL be asked to leave by the clerk. Don't be a dick and don't ruin your chance to have your voice heard.
Voters are NOT required to wear a mask in order to vote. However, poll workers will be seeing hundreds to thousands of people over the course of 14 hours. I personally would like to request that you wear a mask at least while you're in the polling place to help keep me, my fellow volunteers, and your fellow voters safe. This is not a political statement. I don't care if you don't believe in COVID-19, I don't want your seasonal flu or cold either.
Provisional Ballots A provisional ballot is a ballot cast for any voter who appears to be eligible to vote but cannot present photo ID. Provisional ballots will be counted unless your county election commission has reason to believe your affidavit is false. I strongly recommend that you bring other forms of ID (if you have them) such as a Social Security card to help prove your identity.
Failsafe Voting Failsafe voting is designed to allow voters who have moved but failed to update their address to update their address on Election Day and vote. Failsafe voting is available to voters who have moved:
from one address to another within the same precinct
from one precinct to another within the same county OR from one South Carolina county to another within 30 days of an election (those moving in-state still have 2 weeks to update their address)
from one state to another after the deadline to register to vote in the new state of residence
I strongly recommend if you have moved recently that you check your voter registration and update it. Info on how to do that can be found HERE. The 30-day mark is a big one, so make sure everything is in order before October 4th! If you absolutely forget, bring some mail or a recent (redacted) bank statement with your name and new address shown to prove your address. In order for your failsafe vote to be officially counted, you will need to provide a photo ID with your new address to the county board of elections office prior to the date the election is certified.
Individuals with Disabilities (Curbside Voting) Each precinct will have a designated area for curbside voting. This allows people with disabilities or who are over 65 to vote inside their car. You will still need to present photo ID and sign the affidavit to vote, but a voting machine will be brought to your car to allow you to cast your ballot. Just pull up to the designated area and a poll worker will assist you.
Absentee Voting The State Legislature has enacted a "state of emergency" for the 2020 elections. This means that all registered voters are now eligible to vote absentee due to COVID-19 in addition to the other established reasons such as:
With the high volume of absentee voting expected this year, it is highly recommended that you request your mail-in absentee ballot as soon as possible and send it in as early as possible. Additionally, voters may vote absentee in-person at specific locations within their county (usually the county voter registration office). Check your county board of elections website for a list of in-person absentee polling places. Absentee polling places open no later than October 5th but you must complete an absentee registration.
In-Person Absentee Voting (in 3 easy steps)
Step 1: Visit your county voter registration office or extension office between October 5th and November 2nd.
Step 2: Complete an application to vote absentee
Step 3: Cast your ballot
Mail-In Absentee Voting (in 5 easy steps)
Step 1: Get your application, either download and print it HERE or call/email your county voter registration office. You will be mailed an application. A member of your immediate family or an Authorized Representative can also request the application.
Step 2: Complete, sign and return the application to your county voter registration office by mail, email, fax or personal delivery. Applications must be returned no later than 5:00 p.m., Saturday, October 24. (An Authorized Representative must return the application by 5:00 p.m., Friday, October 30.)
Step 3: Receive your absentee ballot in the mail.
Step 4: Carefully complete your ballot. Be sure to sign the voter's oath and have your signature witnessed.
Step 5: Return the ballot to your county voter registration office or extension office by mail, personal delivery or authorized returnee. Your ballot must be received by 7:00 p.m. on Tuesday, November 3.
You can check the status of your absentee ballot HERE.
Authorized Representatives and Authorized Returnees
Note: Candidates and paid campaign workers may not serve as an Authorized Representative or Returnee except for immediate family members. (Don’t pull a McCrae Dowless)
An Authorized Representative is a registered voter who acts on behalf of another voter who is unable to go to the polls because of either:
Authorized Representatives must complete the Authorized Representative form.
An Authorized Representative may:
Authorized Returnee An Authorized Returnee is a person who can be authorized by any voter to return the voter’s absentee by mail ballot. The voter and Returnee must complete the Authorization to Return Absentee Ballot form. The Returnee must present the form when returning the ballot. DO NOT PUT THE FORM INSIDE BALLOT ENVELOPE!!
Remember, the election is not certified on election night. With over 3.3 million registered voters in SC alone, verifying and tallying votes can take time. No matter what the outcome is, the USA is not just its government body, it is the people who call it home. I hope people find this wall of text helpful; if you are eligible, you have no excuses not to vote.
submitted by amberamazine to southcarolina [link] [comments]

2020.09.19 21:58 ThrowRA1264 Mother in law keeps getting catfished and refuses to believe us.

Obviously a throw away account but I need some help here because my wife (29F) and me (29M) are going crazy over this.
My MIL (66F) has had 5 different men contact her over the last ~6 months all with stories which from first glance seem like a catfisher.
First guy worked on an oil rig and had terrible service so he couldn't call her, only message her. He would be visiting her shortly and they were going to then move to Sweden (we're located in the US, so we were quite in shock). I reverse imaged his picture and there he was under 3 different names on 3 different dating sites). She was very sad but believed it and stopped talking to him.
2 weeks later, another international businessman (from Portugal) who was going to just move with her to DC once he got back into the states. He ended up having mutiple Facebook accounts with the same name, all with friends only in Bangladesh. Very suspicious. As we try pulling her away, he sends a fake American passport photo (which she originally believed until I compared it to mine). After that she stopped talking to him too.
This happened two more times, with me having to do a good amount of googling, LinkedIn stalking, fb stalking and image lookups/looking at geotagging embedded in photo properties to show her these were fake.
There is now a new guy who is in the military apparently (another top choice for scammers) and she's trying to avoid sharing any details with us because she's probably nervous I'm going to figure out he's another catfisher.
What do I do in this situation? Therapist? Take her phone away (not very likely to work). I'm worried someone will scam her out of her retirement.
submitted by ThrowRA1264 to relationship_advice [link] [comments]

2020.09.19 16:10 s810 Old Austin Tales: North Austin Meetups of Prehistoric Eras - (4000BC - 1690AD)

The folks down at the Austin History Center are slowly scanning archival photos and adding to UNT's Portal to Texas History even in these pandemic times. Among others, there are quite a few new photos of land parade floats from the early Austin Aqua Festivals in 1962 and 63. It's disappointing to see photos like this 1963 Austin Aqua Festival parade float ignorantly depicting Native Americans in a less than flattering light.
But a few of those kids dressed as stereotypical and generic 1960s natives probably had elderly relatives who remembered the time before all the tribes were ejected from this area and probably would have still thought of them as little more than savages. The photo gives context to the times in which it was taken. The Austinites of that era seem to have had less respect for those people who lived here hundreds or thousands of years before the Spanish and French started roaming around here.
As a modern Austinite I don't see why this attitude should be held up. Those were humans who lived here, if even sporadically, and loved the land and the creeks and trees as much or more than you or I. They just called the landmarks different names back then. It is known that some of the tribes who used to live around here were warlike and confrontational with other tribes. My own grandmother was born in Austin in the 1930s and often told me a tall tale about a fictional battle between the Comanche and 1000 Apache warriors in the hills near Lake Travis. (sometimes the battle took place in the area around where we were sitting in traffic depending on grandma's mood) It was a Thermopylae/Alamo-like tale of outnumbered Comanche braves winning the day by running to the hill now known as Commanche Peak and waiting in ambush. But grandma often told some whoppers and that was surely one of them. I've never read about even the scantest evidence that something like that took place here, if even only in oral histories of the tribes involved. But who knows. My point is we really don't know a whole lot about what the people who lived here before everything, and what they did while they were here.
Today I wanted to share some small bit of the real story of these people who lived here when real estate was free if you could keep it from the wild beasts or competing tribes. Because the real story, from what little we know of it, is really just as captivating as Grandma's tall tales were.
On a related note I recently discovered the AustinFound podcast from Michael Barnes and a few other folks at The Statesman. They've been writing the good historyposts on The Statesman's for a while now under the same name and I've referenced them a lot here before. Michael Barnes knows his stuff. He has written a multi-volume book set called Indelible Austin and was one of the people who went on the expedition to look for traces of the 1730 Spanish mission set up somewhere in this area. In episodes 1, 6, and 27 of the podcast he talks about the three main native tribes in this area: The Apache, who considered this area the northeastern border of their roaming grounds and had mostly vacated by the 1800s, the Comanche, who were descended from the Apache (edit: fixed) Wyoming Shoshone tribe long ago in modern Utah and Wyoming and considered this area the southeastern border of their expanding roaming grounds, and the Tonkawa tribe, who were also war like but had a different culture and their own ways. They especially were early victims of the diseases brought by european contact.
One thing I agree with Michael Barnes about is how The Tonkawa, despite having more of a territorial claim to the area Austin is in now than the other two tribes, are under-represented in the old chronicles written down by early white settlers. The Comanche are namedropped in the written accounts of the 1800s quite a bit for their 'depredations' on early settlers. It was the Comanche were the only tribe in this region who, for a time, rebuffed all attempts to subjugate them from Spain, Mexico, and Anglos. But the Tonkawa, on the other hand, being so few in number had to ally themselves with whites against the other two tribes. Because of this they were westernized quickly and assumed a sort of sub-caste in frontier society. Early accounts refer to them as 'Tonks' and talk in exaggerated ways about their cannibalism and wolf-worship. From what I understand the people eating only took place after winning a great battle. The tribe has a website nowadays where you can learn about their culture, their colorful traditional clothing and how it was made, and the Trail of Tears out of Central Texas.
It's not often talked about what tribes were here before the Tonkawa and the Comanche and Apache. It's a topic I'm always looking to learn more about. If you've lived here a while you might have heard of the Leanderthal Lady. Her remains are estimated to be between 10000 and 13000 years old and according to this article was found with buried with a shark tooth. I've also talked about the digs at the Westcave Preserve near Hamilton Pool, and the Levi and Smith Rock Shelters, where evidence of human habitation dates back 10000 years at least. But that brings up the question: Who lived in the area in between then and the time of the Tonkawa? I know there are stories from early settlers about an 'Indian Village' of an unnamed tribe very near the old Santa Monica Springs on the Colorado River but that's about it. Well thanks to some archeological digs over the years when new stuff had been built we know about a few frequent party spots some of the people alive back then liked to congregate in. I've found archeological reports from three separate digs in spots around North Austin, which is fine because the good rock shelters appear to have been in what is now South Austin anyway...
Let's start in the order the reports were made. The first concerns a site where people camped repeatedly over the course of the last 4000 years that today lies in a neighborhood near the intersection of North Lamar and Braker Lane. Back in the neighborhood is a street called Jetta Court. This neighborhood dates back to the mid to late 1960s and when built the area was already known for arrowhead deposits. In the 1980s further digs established the whole area around where Walnut Creek Park is today was once a major habitation area. But back in '68 the home builder company was partially done with the neighborhood and paid for a salvage dig after reports of trespassers "pothunting".
The report from the salvage dig was published in the Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society, Volume 47, 1976 and is available in the UNT archive. You can read the whole thing if you feel like getting into the weeds. Quoting the abstract and introduction:
During the course of several weekends in 1968 and 1969, students from The University of Texas at Austin carried out test excavations at the Jetta Court site in Travis County, central Texas. These investigations constituted a salvage effort designed to obtain information on this site before it was destroyed by construction activities in a housing development. The terrace deposits at Jetta Court yielded a long Archaic sequence, including a deeply buried occupation which occurred stratigraphically below Early Archaic materials. The results of the excavations are described, and detailed analyses of the lithic debris and faunal re mains are presented.
The Jetta Court site (41 TV 151) is located within the city limits of Austin, Texas, buried in terrace deposits on the west side of Walnut Creek (Figs. 1-3). The site was brought to the attention of the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory (TARL) of The University of Texas at Austin in the fall of 1968 by reports of pothunting in an area slated for a housing subdivision. Inspection of the site by TARL personnel indicated that it should be tested before the planned construction activities were begun.
Excavations, directed by graduate students in anthropology at The University of Texas at Austin, were carried out with volunteer help. Work was done on weekends during a period from December, 1968, to February, 1969. Since the site was unprotected during the week, numerous instances of vandalism occurred. One unit of excavation was eventually ruined, but the others were not seriously damaged. This combination of weekend excavation and weekday vandalism limited effective investigation to stratigraphic testing and backhoe trenching. Exposures of horizontal tracts were not done partly be- cause of fear that it would lead to more extensive depredations on the part of the pothunters, and partly because the site was considerably deeper than was anticipated.
The writers would like to acknowledge the assistance and under- standing of Mr. Cecil Lamour, representing Conann Construction, Inc., in permitting the excavations. His patience with our backhoe operations, in particular, was most helpful.
How dramatic. Apparently someone thought there was buried treasure nearby. I wonder what could have given them that idea.. Here's a photo of the site at the time and Here's a map of the dig site with the holes marked. All of this area is built over today.
The dig was done hastily and the vandalism limited the findings. The report goes on describe two burned rock midden sites located within the boundaries of the dig. These were like old campfires that had been repeatedly built over for a number of years during two different eras.
Some further highlights from the report:
Here's a photo of the one of the holes.
There are a couple of photos of some of the lithic projectile points found in the upper, newer rock midden. Here's one. Here's another. And a couple from the lower, older midden. Here's one from the lower and here's another. There are many more photos and charts showing the finds, their classifications, and their locations in relation to one another in the layered deposits. This is how most of the rest of the report goes.
There were many animal bones and shells found in some areas indicating people ate there, or used the site for industry. Here a list of animal species found in the bones they can identify. On the menu: snails, turtles, opossum, coyote, deer, bison, cow, a couple of kinds of rabbits and mice, and strangely gophers. Apparently there used to be gophers around here when the climate favored grasslands over forests.
The distribution of animal bones is nicely charted here in size and age, Category A being the largest animals like bison and Category C being the smallest, such as rats and snails. The report notes that remains of small animals would degrade faster so that might skew the results.
To sum it all up because it's way too long to copypaste, the two burned rock middens at Jetta Court don't contribute a whole lot of new information to the story besides offering evidence that the spot was a place for habitation. I think if I understand it correctly (correct me if I'm wrong) the lower midden dates back over 3000 years while the upper midden dates back about 2000 years. The report talks about not knowing how to classify the artifacts within the archaic period. It recommends further digs in the area but acknowledges that's probably not possible with the neighborhood going up. What the writers didn't know is that just a few years later digs would begin at many different sites in what is now Walnut Creek Park that further expanded the knowledge of that area and its earliest inhabitants.
Moving on to the next site, which lies a little bit east of there at what became the Jourdan-Bachman Pioneer Farm, once an actual farm near Sprinkle now turned into a live action museum exhibit by the city which is beloved by schoolkids on field trips. It turns out that when the farm was built in the 1850s, part of the property contained a much older camp site that was favored by natives a thousand years ago. A report was written in 1994 about a dig in 1983. (PDF warning). The site of the native cultural deposits was at the southern end of the farm. Here is a map of the site in relation to the farm.
The PDF isn't as copypaste friendly as the other UNT article but it's short and I can summarize the findings. It's really more of just an abstract compared to the other long report. It's worth taking the time to read if you can handle PDFs and you're interested in the history of the area at all. In the introduction they describe how the farm was bought by the Heritage Society of Austin in the 1950s and belonged to the City of Austin by 1980 as part of the same deal that established Walnut Creek Park. More than a few digs had been done in the area around there in the early 1980s. It describes 22 different ancient burials found at one nearby site. At the farm site itself there was a deposit of projectile points over a meter thick of most types found in the area during the archaic era.
That brings us to the third site. called Millican Bench. Never heard of it? Me neither. It's a tiny spot just south of The Arboretum today that was obliterated by the construction of Loop 360 in the 1970s. Before the highway cut through the site, TxDot conducted a dig in 1970 and 71 on a small limestone plateau (thus the bench) where artifacts had been reported by the previous landowner. The report on the site dig is another PDF, but it was written in 2003, is very detailed, and will let me copypaste from it. Here's a map of the site showing where it was in the roadbed of modern Loop 360.
Quoting from the introduction:
Located in Travis County, the Millican Bench site(41TV163) was the first archeological site excavated by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT; then Texas Highway Department) as a mitigation effort for highway construction under the requirements of the National Environmental Protection Act of 1966. The excavation was conducted between September of 1970 and February of 1971under the direction of Frank Weir, then of the Texas Highway Department. In August of 2002, TxDOT contracted with the Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) at The University of Texas at San Antonio (Work Authorization#57014PD004) to conduct an inventory and assessment of the archeological collections and documentation associated with site 41TV163, develop possible research questions that could be pursued with the site data, and to prepare the project material for permanent curation. Based on that assessment(Mahoney et al. 2003a), and following consultation with TxDOT, CAR further was directed to produce a final report.This document constitutes the final report on the TxDOT work at 41TV163. Included in this report are a description of the site, excavation procedures, and an analysis of selected components of the data collected over three decades ago.
To report on excavations and analyze data collected over30 years ago presents several challenges. Foremost among these is that if one wishes to avoid a primarily historical perspective, data collected using earlier field methods to investigate earlier theoretical concerns must be molded to address current questions. In this case, the disconnect between the theoretical and methodological considerations that guided the excavation of 41TV163, which appear to have been focused on chronology and cultural history,and current research interests in Texas archeology is exacerbated by the loss of a large portion of the field notes,some photo logs, and some of the artifacts and samples during the intervening years. Nevertheless, in the assessment document (Mahoney et al. 2003a), we identified a series of current research issues that could be addressed using data generated by the work at 41TV163. These include investigating temporal changes in subsistence patterns and changes in lithic technology. In addition, we investigate several aspects of site use during the Late Prehistoric occupation of 41TV163.
So what this is saying is that basically the original field work and notes were lost and they had to reconstruct everything. I guess they thought it was worth it in scientific value to reconstruct or else maybe because it was the forerunner to TxDot's first dig. In any case the findings showed evidence of habitation a bit later than the other sites to the east. The intro continues:
Initially, seven discrete areas, designated A through G, were identified at Millican Bench. Figure 1-2 (the map linked earlier) presents a section of an aerial photo with the sketched locations of these seven areas, along with the Loop 360 center line. The photo appears to have been created at the time of the fieldwork. Area A consisted of a burned rock midden located on a topographic bench. Another probable burned rock midden, Area B, was situated on the slope and creek terrace below the bench.Located just to the west of Area B were two other areas,designated C and D. These appeared to be occupation areas with burned rock and other debris present. Three additional areas, designated E, F, and G, were located across the creek east of Areas A–D. Area E was a burned rock midden that measured approximately four meters in diameter. Area F contained a concentration of occupation refuse with burned rock and chipped stone, while Area G was a broad bedrock exposure containing scattered chipped stone debris.With the exception of Area G, where only surface collection was conducted, all areas (A through F) had some level of excavation. At 41TV163, TxDOT personnel recorded 11features, including a human burial (Feature 10) and a possible structure (Feature 3). In addition, more than 200cores, 1,400 tools, 400 projectile points, and 42,500 pieces of debitage were collected. With the exception of any evidence for Paleo-indian occupation, the 41TV163 materials seem to reflect most prehistoric periods. Collected projectile point types thought to be diagnostic include Wells, Early Split Stem, Early Triangular, Martindale, and Uvalde forms dating to much of the Early Archaic (8000–6000 BP); Nolan,Travis, and a single Andice point, all dating to the Middle Archaic (6000–4000 BP); Bulverde, Pedernales, Williams,Lange, Marshall, Montell, Castroville, Ensor, Frio, Fairland,and Darl forms dating throughout the Late Archaic (4000–1250 BP); and Scallorn points, dating to the early portion of the Late Prehistoric (1250–700 BP). A small amount of historic and/or modern material was also collected, though it is not considered in any detail in this report.
Long story short, this area was frequently visited from about 4000BC-1300AD, mostly toward the latter date, and shows different patterns in habitation indicating the different tribal customs in use at that point. In addition to rock middens and lots of projectile points and rock flakes, an ancient human burial was found. Also many animal bones like the other sites indicating different eating areas.
Well there you have a few stories of the people who lived here before recorded history. I hope one day more local history writers and bloggers can address this topic in more depth than I have time for here today. I know there are a lot of people out there like me who would love to know more. Time is way short so I've got to wrap this up quick. I obviously don't have any related photos from prehistory but have some newly added old Aqua Fest photos from the UNT archive for Bonus Pics today.
Bonus Pic #1 - "Photograph of two people on a mini pool at the Aqua Festival Land Parade event" - August 3, 1962
Bonus Pic #2 - "Photograph of group of people at Aqua Fest event" - 1963
Bonus Pic #3 - "Photograph of the scenery at Aqua Fest event. A child is seen seated wearing a cape and crown. " - 1963
submitted by s810 to Austin [link] [comments]

2020.09.19 11:54 pog99 Ryan Faulk distorts Segregation/Jim Crow.

See the original article and the garbage it inspired.
If you were to find the about page of his blog, you would know that he defends the blog from promoting white supremacy by simply reporting the facts. A strict reading could put together that it doesn't mean that one couldn't defend or rationalize past systems of white supremacy. I've recently revisited and clarified the issues of his Slave trade article, and soon I plan on talking about multiple issues with his slavery article as well, so today I will do the same with this one.
The running theme of the piece is that disparities during Jim Crow either couldn't be explained specifically by segregation, or that disparities came larger after the 1960s thus segregation as a factor is ruled out. The problems are that -
  1. For each aspect that he measures, he doesn't tie it to a specific expert claim on how Segregation played a role in the disparity.
  2. He doesn't account for post-1960s factors that causes the persisting or larger disparity, and assumes post-1960s is a systematically neutral control.
  3. For certain disparities he compares, they are inappropriate and are not indicative of what he purports.
And for the record, no, he doesn't actually talk about voting or juror restriction by race.
The article-
We first get a rationalization of his analysis.
When I was younger, I would read world atlases. And sometimes I would come to an article, say an article on the country Colombia, and it would say that Colombia is a world leader in coffee production, then list off some other “cash crops”. Then it would go into the growing textiles sector, and mention that it has some problem with debt. Maybe it’s a leading producer of phosphates as well or something. And if you read all of this qualitative, subjective description, you would never realize that Colombia was poor. It’s not until you got to “per capita GDP” that you would discover that it was $3,000 per capita.
You could also have someone qualitatively describe a football game between Auburn and Alabama. And they could do highlights, and describe some of the big plays, and you wouldn’t know that Alabama completely steamrolled Auburn until you looked at the box score.
Or imagine if your son was “describing” qualitatively and subjectively how he was doing in his classes. As a parent you don’t care, you want to see the damn grades.
And so the effects of segregation on blacks. What does the data say? Because in school when segregation is taught, it’s the equivalent of describing a football game by just looking at the highlights and not the box score. It’s cat-lady storytime.
Well, there are a few big go-to topics that popped into my mind to try to quantify the effects of segregation on blacks: cops and courts, schools, income and lynching. So that’s what I go-to’d.

1. Incarceration rate
The incarceration rate for blacks relative to whites has increased at least since 1930, probably long before that. So in terms of blacks being targeted for being sent to prison, it looks like they were substantially less targeted compared to today.
So if the legal systems were unfair during segregation, they appear to be even more unfair today. Or perhaps they weren’t unfair during segregation, are unfair today, or perhaps the laws are different today in a way that disparately impacts blacks more than they did in the past.
There are all sorts of things we can speculate, but it’s not immediately or obviously apparent, from the data, that the legal system was particularly keen on incarcerating blacks compared to today.
So for those of you more keen on race and mass incarceration, you would know that this is particularly strong in Northern Urban regions rather than the South. A whole demographic transition occurred that accounted for it.
Not to mention he never actually looked for studies that purport to address biases during Jim Crow. What does he find through is roundabout ways?
2. Prison sentences
For prison sentences, the numbers have been remarkably stable. When you look at length of prison terms for blacks compared to whites after the FIRST release from prison, it’s very close.
The first release data is important because none of these are repeat offenders. Repeat offenders get more time, and blacks are more likely to be repeat offenders.
That said, based on the data below, blacks serve roughly ~15% longer prison terms for their first term. It could be because the crimes blacks commit within each category are, on average, more severe. It could be racial bias on the part of judges.
Or it could be that blacks have worse courtroom behavior, as when IQ is controlled for, the racial gap in prison sentences goes away.
But what you don’t see is blacks having longer prison sentences during segregation.
Black Multiple of White Median Time Served For ALL Releases in State and Federal Prisons
Now what if we looked at median prison time served just in the South, and back in 1937 – smack in the middle of “Jim Crow” – and included repeat offenders, of which black inmates are a higher proportion today? The result is not that much different from the entire US today:
Black Multiple of White Median Time Served For ALL Releases in 14 Southern States in State and Federal Prisons
Remember, the 1937 data is JUST from the South, supposedly the hot seat of bigotry, and includes repeat offenders.
Homicide data is an unweighted average of each category. In 1937 and 1952 they used Murder and Manslaughter, in 1964 they just had Homicide, and in 2009 they had Murder, Negligent Manslaughter and Non-Negligent Manslaughter.
In case you think I am cherry-picking the years to paint a particular narrative, these are literally just the years used in the Bureau of Justice report I am citing.
And so what we can see is that the black-white incarceration gap is wider today than it was in 1930. In addition, the racial gap in sentence length for first offenders does not appear to have changed at all. Even the data that INCLUDED repeat offenders just in the South in 1937 doesn’t differ that much from the first-time offender data nationally and later.
And so this makes the idea that the current US legal system was more biased against blacks during segregation than it is today SEEM false.
So this is a good example of a data point that doesn't correspond to a specific Civil Rights claim for Jim Crow relative to the post-1960s. Mass incarceration is usually shown as being a post 1960s phenomenon of bias as a particular, in connection to Blacks increasing presence in the North. His source supports it. On page 88.
The median time served for the total was 17 days. For blacks the median was 2 days longer, 19 days. Interestingly, there were larger differences between whites and blacks in time served in the North than in the South. The median time served in the North for whites was 18 days and for blacks a full week longer, 25 days. In the South the median was 17 days for blacks and 16 days for whites. Looking at time served by offense, these differences continue.
Typical civil rights claims are in regard the lack of Black Jurors deals with not simply length of prison time but biases towards choosing conviction by a white jury relative to a comparable white defendant, which this doesn't study.
Therefore, the proper way how to study this would be conviction rates in the same region overtime, such as the South, and compared between different types of juries and defendants. I lack data on this, but one form of bias I have found was application of the death Penalty for rape in the South from the 1930s to the 1960s was harsher not just for Black Criminals, but for Black criminals accused ofraping whites. In further detail, 13% of Black rapists in 11 southern states received the death penalty compared to 2% of whites.
Decreases in overall non-white (likely black) executions, by his source, decreased sharply after the 1960s. Overtime, rates of executions decreased even though crime increased into this period. Mind you, there were death penalty changes around this time.
This source, btw, contains a variety of measurements by race during Jim Crow into the present that could suggest bias outside of merely prison sentences.

3. Lynching
A related topic to this is lynching. From Richard M. Perloff, Professor of Communication at Cleveland State University:
“Approximately 4,742 individuals were lynched between 1882 and 1968; of the victims, 3,445 or 73 percent were Black.”
All lynchings were in response to a claimed offense, such as a rape or stealing cattle. Blacks were 72.65% of all recorded lynchings while being ~26.87% of the population of the South at the time.
The Black population of the Southern US 1880-1970 averages 26.87% at each decade. And so based on their population alone, if lynchings were race-neutral, and we knew nothing about race differences in violent crime going in, we would expect 26.87% of all lynchings to be of blacks. Blacks comprised 72.65% of all lynchings, giving them a representation 2.70 times their population.
However, according to wikipedia, most lynchings occurred between 1882 and 1920, and during that time period the average black population was 31.76% of the southern US population. Using this number, blacks as a percentage of lynchings are only 2.29 times their percentage of the population.
If we split the difference and just say that the black population of the south was 29.32% of the total population, then blacks as a percentage of lynchings was 2.48 times their percentage of the population.
By comparison, in 2010, blacks comprised 12.6% of the total US population, but were 38.13% of the population charged for violent crimes, giving them a representation 3.03 times their population.
And so by raw numbers the lynch mobs appear to be slightly less racially targeting than the current US legal system is. Here are those numbers put in a table:
So when I first read this I thought he was comparing lynchings to police shootings. The second time shows me how asinine he is. This is a good example of an inappropriate comparison.
Being charged with a crime isn't the same as a lynching, lynchings are categorized by the source he originally used for sentencing as an execution, one of the trends that decreased in rates for blacks and as established was higher in the South in ways suggestive of bias.
From his source-
Almost three-fourths (73 percent) of those lynched between 1890 and 1962 (the date of the last recorded lynching) were black, and in the same period, 54 percent of those executed were nonwhite. About 90 percent of those dying under State authority were executed for homicide. Only 41 percent of illegal lynchings were for homicide (Tables 2-1 and 2-2).
This is more or less consistent with my studies showing that, in the South, rape (the next largest portion of lynching offenses After Homicide) was disproportionately applied to black men with death.
Lynchings, as well decreased in accordance with campaigning against it as established in my Dwight Murphey post. This would be an example of civil rights interacting with oppression.

4. Income
This is where arguments regarding the negative effects of segregation start to have some backing in data. Looking at census data from 1948, we can see that black income as a proportion of white income went from around 44% in 1948 to about 80% in 2000. This looks like a massive effect from desegregation on it’s face:
However, there is some interesting data from 1880. If you just look within regions, the racial gap is much less. At that time, black workers earned on median 37% of what white workers earned. However, if you just looked at the south, blacks earned 58% of what white workers earned. So just with that regional control we’re already almost half way to the current black-white income ratio.
Population and wage income by race and region in 1880
But the paper did something else – it looked at black labor income relative to whites, but just looked a rural southern whites and blacks, and only looked at labor income. And in that instance, black income was 89% of white income:
And so when you look at the same region, and the same kind of work, and just compare the wages of workers, the black-white income gap in the rural South was only 11%, lower than it is today. And that difference could very plausibly be due to blacks having fewer skills on average in 1880.
I would be interested to see similar thin slices just looking at urban blacks in the south vs. urban whites in the south, and urban blacks in the north to urban whites in the north. I suspect that the more you held constant region and urban/rural divide, the smaller the racial gap would be.
Which is to say, that it seems like much of the black-white income gap could have been a function of blacks living in rural areas (which were poorer back then) and living in the south (which was poorer back then).
In addition, we can see that the narrowing of the black-white income gap roughly corresponds with blacks moving out of the south. This is not a 1:1 correlation, but it is does suggest that simply moving out of the south), which began in earnest around 1910, is part of the explanation for the narrowing of the black-white income gap:
And in the north, where more of the blacks were slaves who had earned their freedom before 1865, black wages as a proportion of white wages were higher. In fact blacks in the north were wealthier than whites in the south for quite some time.
Moreover, the narrowing of the black-white income gap at the national level occurred almost entirely during segregation. So to say that the smaller amount of narrowing that occurred following desegregation was in fact a result of desegregation is something that sounds kinda plausible – there’s certainly a little story you can tell – but there’s very little data for it. The most you could say is that there was a brief acceleration of the narrowing of the black-white income gap immediately after 1965, but that could be a coincidence, and even if you want to say it was a result of the civil rights act, then the acceleration versus a continuation of the previous trend is still only going to be like 2%.
Now as for why the black-white income gap narrowed from 1948 (at least) to 2000, that’s another topic. I suspect much of it has to do with the economic rise of the south and the migration of blacks away from the rural economy. Also this higher income may not have corresponded with a rise in living standards relative to whites since the cost of living may have increased, but that’s more speculative. But desegregation doesn’t appear to have any relevance to it.
So even the narrowing of the black-white income gap, long touted as prime evidence that segregation was previously suppressing black wages, the evidence is not so clear on that.
So, he decreased the gap however in a way that was not applied to the modern gap, therefore makes his comparison null.
He spends most of this section explaining factors pertaining to geography and the like explaining the gap, even though it's existence is tied to both slavery and the economic and educational limitations of the South for Blacks. This can be seen in the lack of second generation benefits of white migrants relative to black migrants, those born in the North being positively selected for those returning to the South, and the steeper reduction in poverty among southern Blacks due to migrants that returned to the South.
Likewise, despite his claims that Northern Blacks being richer than Southern Whites, he doesn't produce a chart or study showing that.
5. Wealth and Employment
Two more things to consider is that up until the 1950’s blacks had employment rates similar to that of whites. And the unemployment rate in blacks grew much more after 1965:
And in terms of wealth, black wealth as a proportion of white wealth has remained stagnant since 1963:
Moreover, I would say that the absolute disparity is more important than the black-white ratio. Because lets say you have $10 and Bob has $100. That’s a $90 gap. Depending on your job, that’s a day’s wage, or half a day’s wage. Now if you have $100 and Bob has $900, now you’re looking at multiple days’ wage. And so on and so on. So even though the relation is the same, the practical importance of the gap is growing. Also just the total dollar amount difference is increasing. And these are all in “2013 dollars”, which adjusts for inflation.
And so when people say that the relative economic situation of blacks has improved relative to whites since segregation, they’re looking at one thing: nominal income at the national level. They’re not looking at employment, at wealth, or how much, if at all, the income gap has narrowed when controlling for what region of the country we’re looking at, or if it’s urban or rural.
While this is worth pointing out, it fails to account for complex factors of the great migration. While gains were present, unemployment increased due to urban living and relatively higher demands in skill compared to the South. This can be seen by actually referencing the study he pulls the chart from, where changes in unemployment occur earlier and become starker outside of the South.
What is also interesting his how an earlier study done by one of the researchers of the 1999 study he cites notes how human capital can't explain as much of the gap in the North as it can in the South.
6. Schools
Another argument that segregation depressed black economic success is their lower school funding. On average, from 1890 to 1950, the average of how much each state spent on black schools as a proportion of what they spent on white schools was 56.96%. So they had less funding.
But funding for what? For “better teachers”? What’s a “better teacher”? What has been found in the US is that increased real spending on schools has not increased overall performance since the 1970s, and more importantly voucher studies have shown that the school an individual goes to has no real impact on either GPA, standardized test scores or future college attendance.
So the fact that additional funding didn’t matter in 1970 is one thing. But did it matter from 1870 to 1954?
Well, we don’t have regular standardized tests from that time period, but we do have a nationally representative IQ test done in 1917 for all US army conscripts for World War 1. In it blacks scored a median of 83 compared to the white score that was set to 100. Today the black median is still at 85. Okay, two points. And my guess is they were hollow for “g” anyway.
Certainly there were journalists at the time who did “investigative journalism” and wrote anecdotal reports of how bad the black schools were. Michael Moore does “investigative journalism” today too about how great the Cuban healthcare system is. Walter Duranty visited the USSR in the 1930s and came back writing glowing reviews of the benevolent, if firm, policies of Stalin.
Maybe they were telling the truth, maybe they were making things up, who knows.
Black schools were probably worse But the question is how much worse really? And for most people, did it even matter? Most of what people learn in school they forget anyway, so aside from literacy and basic math, the practical importance of school would be minimal for most people at that time.
And the culture of school credentials as a signal to employers hadn’t developed yet, so at the time any “educational disadvantages” blacks had, whatever they were and if any, would not matter in terms of credential-signaling because that hadn’t developed yet, and in terms of knowledge beyond basic literacy and math – that all gets forgotten anyway.
So....lets review.
  1. He could've mentioned the Coleman Report but didn't. This is a pretty major study in this particular field of social science, so for Faulk to miss something crucial to grounding his point only demonstrates his lack of familiarity with the material.
  2. I'm going to to assume, since the link is dead, that the studies referenced in that link doesn't account for how money is spent.
  3. His study cites work from a cosumer behavior course, not actual studies on schools.
  4. A recent study shows that for Jim Crow, school quality accounts for the majority of the wage gap for the era.
  5. Actual tracking of changes in school quality supports the conclusion.
  6. Previous data given regarding the Great Migration would indicate that education and a market to use it made generational different for blacks, even considering selection.
7. Countrymen?
This section is a bit of a digression. In a broader sense, blacks weren’t seen as legitimate countrymen to some extent for some time in the region. And so since the blacks were viewed as “foreigners” to southern whites, who to some extent viewed northern whites as foreigners as well, they didn’t think they owed the blacks equal school funding any more than they owed people from Peru or Romania or China equal school funding.
I.e. the black-white gap in school funding meant as much to them as the american-chinese gap in school funding, as both the Chinese and the blacks were foreign to the southern whites.
Now you can have whatever opinion you want about it, and say that blacks were rightful countrymen of southern whites, and really pound your fists in self-righteous certainty about it because you “know it to be true”. That’s certainly your viewpoint.
But understand that it is just your viewpoint, and when you realize that the southern whites viewed blacks the way we look at illegal immigrants today, and that the times during which either repatriation of blacks to Africa or creating a separate black country out of land in the US were serious proposals were still in living memory at the time.
Today blacks have been part of the US for so long that such proposals probably seem bizarre to you. And they would bizarre and cruel if implemented today. But also remember that the US had to impose military governments in the south in order to pass the 14th amendment that gave the blacks citizenship. And Oregon, New Jersey and Ohio renounced their ratification of the 14th amendment after the fact in protest of this action.
Obviously is was a symbolic gesture, but it showed that opposition to the way the 14th amendment was passed wasn’t considered some kooky fringe idea at the time. Of course it is now because if you bring up the use of military governments in passing the 14th amendment – well, “only racists talk about that”, so it just gets dismissed.
But yes, understand that the 14th amendment was seen like granting “amnesty” to the illegals is today – it would be creating an alternative method of granting citizenship for a specific group of non-citizens in the US today.
(And the fact that more whites supported granting citizenship to the black slaves at the time than supporting granting amnesty to illegals today is support for a theory I have about whites in the past being more “neurologically left-wing” even if they would be considered today to hold “far-right” positions by today’s standards.)
  1. Despite whatever perceptions American whites had about Americans blacks, it doesn't change the facts were that blacks were not comparable to the Chinese at the time. The cultural gaps and their economic history on a racial basis doesn't justify it.
  2. The basis of historical relativism in this case was seeming argued further in his MLK video, now deleted. That is, as argued by others before, whites didn't have to pay taxes for Black schools. This causes obvious problems as the average black had only limited wealth to tax in large part due to limited skills.
Faulk's self prophesied Conclusion-
So, what do we learn from his conclusions? He bizarrely begins with a tangent on the Zimmerman and Wilson trials and the correlated of media knowledge.
Some excerpts.
The jurors certainly knew more facts about each case than the general public did. Moreover, whites are more likely to believe Zimmerman and Wilson were justified, and whites do better on tests of current events knowledge. In addition, males, who do better on current events knowledge tests than females, also were more satisfied with the Zimmerman verdict than women, and women do worse on current events knowledge tests. Also, people with higher education levels approved the verdict as well.
Thus, all three factors that correlate with general political and current events knowledge (being white, being male and having lots of time in school) also correlate with approving the Zimmerman trial verdict. And the people who had the MOST knowledge – the jurors – unanimously found Zimmerman not guilty.
If you go by the literature in news media talking about “institutional racism” and “white privilege”, it’s not immediately obvious that the aggregate of all media is any less obsessed with the plight of the coloreds than they were in 1964. Maybe they were, but I have no way to really tell.
Do you see it? Do you see that lack of any real transition? Maybe some further comment can help.
But lets say Derrick Wilson killed “the gentle giant” in 1961. There was no internet in 1961, what you knew about the events was what a few major news outlets chose to report. As it happens, a jury also found J.W. Milam and Roy Bryant not guilty of murder in their killing of Emmett Till. And what do you know about that event? Do the facts you know of the Emmett Till verdict seem to paint a one-sided story to where it is unbelievable, yes, unbelievable that a jury would find Bryant and Milam not guilty?
Once again we have a comparison that isn't proper. The modern day examples leaves no ambiguity as to who killed who, it was a matter of whether the killing was justified or not.
The Emmett Till situation was vastly different, since the matter of whether or not Till was killed, whether or not Milam and Bryant were guilty, or exactly what happened between Till and Bryant in the store. Her own account only goes as far as to say that she was grabbed by the waist, while press releases by the defense/police was explicitly more violent. Both stories differ from her original account to her lawyers. Even the officer who initially believed that the body belonged to Till changed his mind when the town's reputation began to be tarnished.
Furthermore, even if we are to treat the Till case like the modern day examples, it only shows the hairiness of the case itself. Despite the defense being that Till is not confirmed dead, and that the brothers were innocent of murder, part of their defense regarding Till's actions and the release of Louis Till's rape record by politicians shows a blatant message. That even if the brothers killed Till, it was justified despite nonetheless being illegal.
Anyone, however, can read the various sources that talks about the issue at length. Personally I have Devery Anderson's most recent book.
Because we all know that the courts in the South were incredibly unfair to the blacks? Except there’s no real data to support that at the time,
In regards to death penalties, legal and illegal, for interracial rape, we do. This is supported, along with the data, In regards to changing testimonies in the case of Till, from the police, we do. From the fact that shortly afterward another white on black murder with a white witness (and multiple black ones) claiming otherwise. Said white was not only a friend of the defendants of the Till case, but was defended by the same officer who doubted the corpse's identity.
Point is that an entire survey of the south as a premise of bias is unnecessary (though supportive) of bias. The specific town where the crime took place has plenty of evidence of bias during the trial stemming from community values.
and victim surveys from modern times correspond with the police arrest rates, and police are more likely to kill a white person in any given arrest situation, are more likely to shoot blacks in simulations, and the black percentage of killing cops is higher than their percentage of being killed by cops. And in fact the black incarceration rate relative to whites is HIGHER than it was during segregation.
Irrelevant to the context of Till, a circumstance so legally unique from the above examples it shows Faulk's ignorance. The only connection is the matter of white credibility in modern settings verses in the context of a particular case.
As shown in previous articles, modern “institutional racism” in terms of police and court bias, callbacksand educational opportunities are very easily revealed to be phantasms – or at the very least the issue of whether or not they exist is much more complex than the basic statistics you hear on tumblr and huffpo posts would suggest.
Both articles are shitty, see United Left on the school vouchers argument.
Recent studies have shown that residential racial segregation has increased in the United States. This is an improvement over older studies which simply looked at cities and the percentage of each race in the cities. These newer methods actually look at the likelihood of you having a neighbor of a different race, and find that racial segregation is increasing.
So it's basically comparing two different types of "segregation", the conventional method comparing pre-1960s trends nonetheless decreasing.
We already know that schools are more segregated than they were during the late 1960s. Now this is a profound thing; you’ve been to school. You had first hand experience with how racially segregated they were. THAT was close to what it was like during Jim Crow that we hear so many stories about. So… how segregated did it seem?
Again, misleading headline.
In other places on this site, Sean and I make arguments about how currently, blacks and hispanics are not getting a raw deal in employment, courts or education. But what surprised me was just how much, looking into the past, the old days seem so similar to today in terms of the lot of blacks compared to whites.
They are drawn parallel. The past is not far away, it’s right here. 60 years ago was yesterday.
Only your superficial understanding of the 1960s, or any decade before.
submitted by pog99 to badhistory [link] [comments]

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